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Determining the evolutionary age of asexual lineages should help in inferring the temporal scale under which asexuality and sex evolve and assessing selective factors involved in the evolution of asexuality. We used 416 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene to infer phylogenetic relationships of virtually all known Timema walkingstick species, including(More)
Drugs that target the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and/or insulin receptor (IR) are currently under investigation for a variety of malignancies including breast cancer. Although we have previously reported that IGF-IR expression in primary breast tumors is common, the activation status of this receptor has not been examined in relation to(More)
Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is an oncogenic transcription/translation factor expressed in >40% of breast cancers, where it is associated with poor prognosis, disease recurrence, and drug resistance. We questioned whether this may be linked to the ability of YB-1 to induce the expression of genes linked to cancer stem cells such as CD44 and CD49f. Herein,(More)
INTRODUCTION Gene expression analysis is used to subtype breast cancers such that the most aggressive tumors are identified, but translating this into clinical practice can be cumbersome. Our goal is to develop a universal biomarker that distinguishes patients at high risk across all breast cancer subtypes. We previously reported that Y-box binding(More)
Phylogenetic studies of asexual lineages and their sexual progenitors are useful for inferring the causes of geographical parthenogenesis and testing hypotheses regarding the evolution of sex. With five known parthenogens and well-studied ecology, Timema walking-sticks are a useful system for studying these questions. Timema are mainly endemic to California(More)
increased the detection rate to 100%. Analysis of a heterogeneous sample set is therefore improved by personal evaluation in some circumstances, whereas analysis of good-quality DNA can be performed solely by the software. In addition to polymorphism A896G, samples containing DNA from whole blood (n ϭ 120) were examined for a second TLR4 polymorphism,(More)
The three-dimensional structure of an apolipoprotein isolated from the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria has been determined by X-ray analysis to a resolution of 2.5 A. The overall molecular architecture of this protein consists of five long alpha-helices connected by short loops. As predicted from amino acid sequence analyses, these helices are(More)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) high rate of relapse is thought to be due to the presence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs), molecularly defined as being CD44high/CD24-/low. TICs are resilient to chemotherapy and radiation. However, no currently accepted molecular target exists against TNBC and, moreover, TICs. Therefore, we sought the identification of(More)
BACKGROUND Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is estimated to occur in 10-15% of people with psoriasis and accounts for 13% of people attending early arthritis clinics. With an increasing awareness of the poor outcomes associated with PsA and the availability of new effective, but costly, treatments, there is an urgent need to research the optimal treatment for(More)