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In recent years, human and wildlife monitoring studies have identified perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) worldwide. This has led to efforts to better understand the hazards that may be inherent in these compounds, as well as the global distribution of the PFAAs. Much attention has focused on understanding the toxicology of the two most widely known PFAAs,(More)
Structured frameworks are extremely useful in promoting transparent, harmonized approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals. One area where this has been particularly successful is in the analysis of modes of action (MOAs) for chemical carcinogens in experimental animals and their relevance to humans. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)(More)
The perfluoroalkyl acid salts (both carboxylates and sulfonates, hereafter designated as PFAAs) and their derivatives are important chemicals that have numerous consumer and industrial applications. However, recent discoveries that some of these compounds have global distribution, environmental persistence, presence in humans and wildlife, as well as(More)
This report describes the results of a survey designed to evaluate the contribution of F1 neurobehavioral testing to hazard identification and characterization in safety assessment studies. (To review the details of the distributed survey, please see the supplementary data for this article on the journal's Web site.) The survey provided information about(More)
The human relevance framework (HRF) outlines a four-part process, beginning with data on the mode of action (MOA) in laboratory animals, for evaluating the human relevance of animal tumors. Drawing on U.S. EPA and IPCS proposals for animal MOA analysis, the HRF expands those analyses to include a systematic evaluation of comparability, or lack of(More)