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The development of social familiarity in rodents depends predominantly on olfactory cues and can critically influence reproductive success. Researchers have operationally defined this memory by a reliable decrease in olfactory investigation in repeated or prolonged encounters with a conspecific. Brain oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) seem to modulate a(More)
Oxytocin (OT) knock-out mice fail to recognize familiar conspecifics after repeated social exposures, despite normal olfactory and spatial learning abilities. OT treatment fully restores social recognition. Here we demonstrate that OT acts in the medial amygdala during the initial exposure to facilitate social recognition. OT given before, but not after,(More)
All social relationships are dependent on an organism's ability to remember conspecifics. Social memory may be a unique form of memory, critical for reproduction, territorial defense, and the establishment of dominance hierarchies in a natural context. In the laboratory, social memory can be assessed reliably by measuring the reduction in investigation of a(More)
Previous studies have shown that oxytocin (OT)-deficient female mice produced by homologous recombination fail to lactate but exhibit normal parturition and reproductive behaviors. We examined the ultrasonic vocalizations of infant mice and the subsequent aggressive and fear behavior of adult male OT knockout (OT-KO) mice. Infant OT-KO mice were less vocal(More)
Late onset vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) from chronic neuroleptic treatment have been used as a rat model of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Early onset VCMs have also been observed, raising questions about the validity of this model. To assess the relationship between these two types of VCMs, pharmacological and neurochemical properties of early and late onset(More)
In the rat, neurochemical, behavioral, and anatomical investigations suggest that medial prefrontal cortical input modulates the activity of the basal ganglia. To understand how prefrontal dysfunction might alter striatal-accumbens function, in situ hybridization histochemistry with S35-labeled oligonucleotide probes was used to assess changes in(More)
BACKGROUND The mitogen-activated protein-kinase pathway consisting of the kinases RAF, MEK, and ERK is central to cell proliferation and survival and is deregulated in more than 90% of melanomas. MEK inhibitors are currently trialled in the clinic, but despite efficient target inhibition, cytostatic rather than cytotoxic activity limits their efficacy. (More)
Clonal selection and transcriptional reprogramming (e.g., epithelial-mesenchymal transition or phenotype switching) are the predominant theories thought to underlie tumor progression. However, a "division of labor" leading to cooperation among tumor-cell subpopulations could be an additional catalyst of progression. Using a zebrafish-melanoma xenograft(More)
The RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway is deregulated in over 90% of malignant melanomas, and targeting MEK as a central kinase of this pathway is currently tested in clinical trials. However, dose-limiting side effects are observed, and MEK inhibitors that sufficiently reduce ERK activation in patients show a low clinical response. Apart from dose limitations, a(More)