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Serious neuropsychological impairments are seen in a minority of addiction treatment clients, and, theoretically, these impairments should undermine behavioral changes targeted by treatment; however, little evidence supports a direct influence of impairment on treatment response. To address this paradox, the authors used structural equation modeling and(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors compared the prevalence and pattern of substance use in undergraduate student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. PARTICIPANTS Authors collected data from male (n = 418) and female (n = 475) student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. METHODS The authors administered self-report questionnaires to assess prevalence,(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired neuropsychological test performance, especially on tests of executive function and attention, is often seen in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Structures involved in fronto-striatal circuitry, such as the caudate nucleus, may support these cognitive abilities. However, few studies have examined caudate volumes(More)
OBJECTIVE Memory affects behavior by allowing events to be anticipated and goals to be planned based on previous experiences. Emotional memory, in particular, is thought to play a central role in behavior in general and in drinking behavior in particular. Alcohol intoxication has been shown to disrupt intentional, conscious memory, but not unintentional,(More)
There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes(More)
Neurocognitive impairments are prevalent in persons seeking treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). These impairments and their physical, social, psychological and occupational consequences vary in severity across persons, much like those resulting from traumatic brain injury; however, due to their slower course of onset, alcohol-related cognitive(More)
Risk covariates of neuropsychological ability (NA) at treatment entry and neuropsychological recovery (NR) across 15 months were examined and replicated in 2 samples (Ns = 952 and 774) from Project MATCH, a multisite study of alcoholism treatments. NA at treatment entry was associated with age, education, and other covariates. Statistically significant mean(More)
The heart rate (HR) and vascular tone (VT) baroreflexes are control systems with negative feedback. As closed-loop control systems with delays, they possess resonance features at approximately 0.1 Hz and 0.03 Hz, which correspond to a ~5-s delay in the blood pressure (BP) response to HR changes and a ~15-s delay in VT response to BP changes, respectively.(More)
BACKGROUND Reports of illicit substance use by college athletes have become commonplace in recent years, yet comparatively little effort has been put forth by the research community to understand these behaviors. METHODS Data for this study came from a large, national dataset collected by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). This study(More)
Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often ruminate about past experiences, especially those with negative content. These repetitive thoughts may interfere with cognitive processes related to attention and conflict monitoring. However, the temporal nature of these processes as reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) has not been(More)