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OBJECTIVE The authors compared the prevalence and pattern of substance use in undergraduate student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. PARTICIPANTS Authors collected data from male (n = 418) and female (n = 475) student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. METHODS The authors administered self-report questionnaires to assess prevalence,(More)
Serious neuropsychological impairments are seen in a minority of addiction treatment clients, and, theoretically, these impairments should undermine behavioral changes targeted by treatment; however, little evidence supports a direct influence of impairment on treatment response. To address this paradox, the authors used structural equation modeling and(More)
There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes(More)
OBJECTIVE Memory affects behavior by allowing events to be anticipated and goals to be planned based on previous experiences. Emotional memory, in particular, is thought to play a central role in behavior in general and in drinking behavior in particular. Alcohol intoxication has been shown to disrupt intentional, conscious memory, but not unintentional,(More)
Risk covariates of neuropsychological ability (NA) at treatment entry and neuropsychological recovery (NR) across 15 months were examined and replicated in 2 samples (Ns = 952 and 774) from Project MATCH, a multisite study of alcoholism treatments. NA at treatment entry was associated with age, education, and other covariates. Statistically significant mean(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired neuropsychological test performance, especially on tests of executive function and attention, is often seen in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Structures involved in fronto-striatal circuitry, such as the caudate nucleus, may support these cognitive abilities. However, few studies have examined caudate volumes(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in clients who enter treatment programs for substance abuse. The potential for early recovery of cognitive abilities is suggested by previous research; however, the extent of improvement and risk factors that may help predict individual differences in rates of recovery remain unclear. This study is a(More)
Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ∼6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and(More)
BACKGROUND Reports of illicit substance use by college athletes have become commonplace in recent years, yet comparatively little effort has been put forth by the research community to understand these behaviors. METHODS Data for this study came from a large, national dataset collected by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). This study(More)
Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often ruminate about past experiences, especially those with negative content. These repetitive thoughts may interfere with cognitive processes related to attention and conflict monitoring. However, the temporal nature of these processes as reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) has not been(More)