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Using the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m))-sensitive fluorescent dyes 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), we have observed spontaneous changes in the DeltaPsi(m) of cultured forebrain neurons. These fluctuations in DeltaPsi(m) appear to represent(More)
Serious neuropsychological impairments are seen in a minority of addiction treatment clients, and, theoretically, these impairments should undermine behavioral changes targeted by treatment; however, little evidence supports a direct influence of impairment on treatment response. To address this paradox, the authors used structural equation modeling and(More)
MitoTracker dyes are fluorescent mitochondrial markers that covalently bind free sulfhydryls. The impact of alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) and oxidant stress on MitoTracker staining in mitochondria in cultured neurons and astrocytes has been investigated. p-(Trifluoromethoxy) phenyl-hydrazone (FCCP) significantly decreased(More)
Risk covariates of neuropsychological ability (NA) at treatment entry and neuropsychological recovery (NR) across 15 months were examined and replicated in 2 samples (Ns = 952 and 774) from Project MATCH, a multisite study of alcoholism treatments. NA at treatment entry was associated with age, education, and other covariates. Statistically significant mean(More)
OBJECTIVE Memory affects behavior by allowing events to be anticipated and goals to be planned based on previous experiences. Emotional memory, in particular, is thought to play a central role in behavior in general and in drinking behavior in particular. Alcohol intoxication has been shown to disrupt intentional, conscious memory, but not unintentional,(More)
Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often ruminate about past experiences, especially those with negative content. These repetitive thoughts may interfere with cognitive processes related to attention and conflict monitoring. However, the temporal nature of these processes as reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) has not been(More)
The goal of this study was to investigate changes in glutamatergic synapses in the striatum of rats at two different time-points following a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle. One month following this lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway, there was an increase (70%) in the mean percentage of asymmetrical synapses(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired neuropsychological test performance, especially on tests of executive function and attention, is often seen in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Structures involved in fronto-striatal circuitry, such as the caudate nucleus, may support these cognitive abilities. However, few studies have examined caudate volumes(More)
Treatment with haloperidol, a dopamine receptor D-2 antagonist, for one month resulted in an increase in the mean percentage of asymmetric synapses containing a discontinuous, or perforated, postsynaptic density (PSD) [Meshul et al. (1994) Brain Res., 648:181-195] and a change in the density of striatal glutamate immunoreactivity within those presynaptic(More)
This study examined alcohol use behaviors as well as physiological, personality, and motivational measures of arousal in students approximately 2 years after they were mandated to a brief intervention program for violating university policies about on-campus substance use. Students were categorized into serious (medical referrals, n=13) or minor (residence(More)