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Visual system development requires experience-dependent mechanisms that regulate neuronal structure and function, including dendritic arbor growth, synapse formation, and stabilization. Although RNA binding proteins have been shown to affect some forms of synaptic plasticity in adult animals, their role in the development of neuronal structure and(More)
During the first cell cycle of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, asymmetries are established that are essential for determining the subsequent developmental fates of the daughter cells. The maternally expressed par genes are required for establishing this polarity. The products of several of the par genes have been found to be themselves asymmetrically(More)
Single-cell electroporation allows transfection of plasmid DNA or macromolecules into individual living cells using modified patch electrodes and common electrophysiological equipment. This protocol is optimized for rapid in vivo electroporation of Xenopus laevis tadpole brains with DNA, dextrans, morpholinos and combinations thereof. Experienced users can(More)
We analyzed the function of neural progenitors in the developing central nervous system of Xenopus laevis tadpoles by using in vivo time-lapse confocal microscopy to collect images through the tectum at intervals of 2-24 hours over 3 days. Neural progenitor cells were labeled with fluorescent protein reporters based on expression of endogenous Sox2(More)
Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding protein (CPEB) is an RNA binding protein involved in dendritic delivery of mRNA and activity-dependent, polyadenylation-induced translation of mRNAs in the dendritic arbor. CPEB affects learning and memory and impacts neuronal morphological and synaptic plasticity. In neurons, CPEB is concentrated in(More)
Neurogenesis in the brain of Xenopus laevis continues throughout larval stages of development. We developed a 2-tier screen to identify candidate genes controlling neurogenesis in Xenopus optic tectum in vivo. First, microarray and NanoString analyses were used to identify candidate genes that were differentially expressed in Sox2-expressing neural(More)
Antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) have become a valuable method to knock down protein levels, to block mRNA splicing, and to interfere with miRNA function. MOs are widely used to alter gene expression during development of Xenopus and zebra fish, where they are typically injected into the fertilized egg or blastomeres. Here, we present methods to(More)
Mitochondria are involved in key cellular functions including energy production, metabolic homeostasis, and apoptosis. Normal mitochondrial function is preserved by several interrelated mechanisms. One mechanism - intramitochondrial quality control (IMQC) - is represented by conserved proteases distributed across mitochondrial compartments. Many aspects and(More)
We examined the role of the foregut in the resorption of molting fluid (MF) from the exuvial space during the last larval-larval molt of the moth Manduca sexta. In intermolt larvae, the activity of the foregut is characterized by robust peristaltic contractions. With the onset of the molt, MF is secreted into the exuvial space where it digests and weakens(More)
The etiology of mitochondrial disease is poorly understood. Furthermore, treatment options are limited, and diagnostic methods often lack the sensitivity to detect disease in its early stages. Disrupted oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) that inhibits ATP production is a common phenotype of mitochondrial disorders that can be induced in zebrafish by(More)