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The proinflammatory activation of leukocytes in adipose tissue contributes to metabolic disease. How crosstalk between immune cells initiates and sustains adipose tissue inflammation remains an unresolved question. We have examined the hypothesis that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) interact with and regulate the function of T cells. Dietary obesity was(More)
An adaptive immune response triggered by obesity is characterized by the activation of adipose tissue CD4(+) T cells by unclear mechanisms. We have examined whether interactions between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and CD4(+) T cells contribute to adipose tissue metainflammation. Intravital microscopy identifies dynamic antigen-dependent interactions(More)
Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) accumulate in fat during obesity and resemble foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie both inflammatory conditions. CX(3)CR1 and its ligand fractalkine/CX(3)CL1 contribute to macrophage recruitment and inflammation in atherosclerosis, but their role in obesity-induced adipose tissue(More)
Women of reproductive age are protected from metabolic disease relative to postmenopausal women and men. Most preclinical rodent studies are skewed toward the use of male mice to study obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction because of a similar protection observed in female mice. How sex differences in obesity-induced inflammatory responses contribute to(More)
Age-related adiposity has been linked to chronic inflammatory diseases in late life. To date, the studies on adipose tissue leukocytes and aging have not taken into account the heterogeneity of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), nor have they examined how age impacts other leukocytes such as T cells in fat. Therefore, we have performed a detailed(More)
Obesity is associated with an activated macrophage phenotype in multiple tissues that contributes to tissue inflammation and metabolic disease. To evaluate the mechanisms by which obesity potentiates myeloid activation, we evaluated the hypothesis that obesity activates myeloid cell production from bone marrow progenitors to potentiate inflammatory(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is induced in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue with obesity. The mechanism and function of NPY induction in fat are unclear. Given the evidence that NPY can modulate inflammation, we examined the hypothesis that NPY regulates the function of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in response to dietary obesity in mice. NPY was(More)
Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion regulation(More)
Obesity activates both innate and adaptive immune responses in adipose tissue, but the mechanisms critical for regulating these responses remain unknown. CD40/CD40L signaling provides bidirectional costimulatory signals between antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T cells, and CD40L expression is increased in obese humans. Therefore, we examined the(More)
Obesity causes dramatic proinflammatory changes in the adipose tissue immune environment, but relatively little is known regarding how this inflammation responds to weight loss (WL). To understand the mechanisms by which meta-inflammation resolves during WL, we examined adipose tissue leukocytes in mice after withdrawal of a high-fat diet. After 8 weeks of(More)