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Eye movements were monitored to assess memory for scenes indirectly (implicitly). Two eye movement-based memory phenomena were observed: (a) the repetition effect, a decrease in sampling of previously viewed scenes compared with new scenes, reflecting memory for those scenes, and (b) the relational manipulation effect, an increase in viewing of the regions(More)
This article provides evidence for implicit change detection and for the contribution of multiple memory sources to online representations. Multiple eye-movement measures distinguished original from changed scenes, even when college students had no conscious awareness for the change. Patients with amnesia showed a systematic deficit on 1 class of(More)
In the last several years there have been impressive strides in the ability to explore the nature of hippocampal system functioning in humans by employing functional neuroimaging methods, permitting such methods to be used in conjunction with neuropsychological methods to better understand the role of the hippocampal system in memory. In this paper, we(More)
In a recent eye-movement study [Psychol. Sci. 11 (2000) 454], amnesic patients failed selectively to exhibit long-term effects of memory for the relations among the constituent elements of scenes. This failure could be due to a deficit specifically in long-term relational memory, as we have suggested; or in retention of relational information over any(More)
Current theories of emotion perception posit that basic facial expressions signal categorically discrete emotions or affective dimensions of valence and arousal. In both cases, the information is thought to be directly "read out" from the face in a way that is largely immune to context. In contrast, the three studies reported here demonstrated that(More)
Relational and conjunctive memory theory each postulate that the hippocampus participates in the formation of long-term memory representations comprised of associations between multiple elements. The goals of the current work were to clarify and contrast these theories by outlining the nature of the representations that are spared vs. impaired following(More)
Generalizations about neural function are often drawn from non-human animal models to human cognition, however, the assumption of cross-species conservation may sometimes be invalid. Humans may use different strategies mediated by alternative structures, or similar structures may operate differently within the context of the human brain. The transitive(More)
We examined whether alternate systems compensate for deficient ones to process relations in amnesia. Transverse patterning (TP), a test of relating items to one another in memory, is reliably impaired in amnesia and has played a central role in testing hippocampal function. We facilitated successful TP in amnesia by providing familiar stimuli with(More)
Hippocampal amnesia is defined by deficits in the binding of relations among items--a deficit captured by the transverse patterning (TP) task. Unitization is a processing mechanism that may allow amnesic patients to compensate for relational memory deficits. Amnesic patient D.A. demonstrated intact TP, and performance was maintained 1 month following(More)
Age-related memory deficits may result from attending to too much information (inhibition deficit) and/or storing too little information (binding deficit). The present study evaluated the inhibition and binding accounts by exploiting a situation in which deficits of inhibition should benefit relational memory binding. Older adults directed more viewing(More)