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We conducted a vaccine coverage survey in Kilifi District, Kenya in order to identify predictors of childhood immunization. We calculated travel time to vaccine clinics and examined its relationship to immunization coverage and timeliness among the 2169 enrolled children (median age: 12.5 months). 86% had vaccine cards available, >95% had received three(More)
Children with sickle-cell disease are at great risk of serious infections and early mortality. Our Review investigates the association between sickle-cell disease and invasive bacterial disease among populations in Africa. We systematically searched published work extracted data on pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteraemia by sickle-cell disease status. Most(More)
BACKGROUND Policy-makers evaluating country progress towards the Millennium Development Goals also examine trends in health inequities. Distance to health facilities is a known determinant of health care utilization and may drive inequalities in health outcomes; we aimed to investigate its effects on childhood mortality. METHODS The Epidemiological and(More)
BACKGROUND Surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease has been conducted using a variety of case ascertainment methods and diagnostic tools. Interstudy differences in observed rates of invasive pneumococcal disease could reflect variations in surveillance methods or true epidemiological differences in disease incidence. To facilitate comparisons of(More)
BACKGROUND African children have some of the highest rates of bacterial meningitis in the world. Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high case fatality and frequent neuropsychological sequelae. The objective of this study is to present a comprehensive review of data on bacterial meningitis sequelae in children from the African continent. (More)
OBJECTIVE To explore excess paediatric mortality after discharge from Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya, and its duration and risk factors. METHODS Hospital and demographic data were used to describe post-discharge mortality and survival probability in children aged < 15 years, by age group and clinical syndrome. Cox regression models were developed to(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between homestead distance to hospital and access to care and to estimate the sensitivity of hospital-based surveillance in Kilifi district, Kenya. METHODS In 2002-2006, clinical information was obtained from all children admitted to Kilifi District Hospital and linked to demographic surveillance data. Travel times to(More)
A real-time polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect all known strains of Streptococcus suis. The assay was highly specific, and sensitivity was <10 copies/assay for S. suis detection from clinical samples.
BACKGROUND Accurate etiological diagnosis of meningitis in developing countries is needed, to improve clinical care and to optimize disease-prevention strategies. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and latex agglutination testing are currently the standard diagnostic methods but lack sensitivity. METHODS We prospectively assessed the utility of an(More)