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Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can trigger broad inflammatory responses that elicit rapid innate immunity and promote the activities of lymphocytes, which can potentially enhance adoptive immunotherapy in the tumor-bearing setting. In the present study, we found that Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid [Poly(I:C)] and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 [CpG],(More)
PURPOSE A phase I study was conducted to assess the safety of adoptive immunotherapy using gene-modified autologous T cells for the treatment of metastatic ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN T cells with reactivity against the ovarian cancer-associated antigen alpha-folate receptor (FR) were generated by genetic modification of autologous T cells with a(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effector lymphocytes necessary for defence against stressed, microbe-infected, or malignant cells. NK cells kill target cells by either of two major mechanisms that require direct contact between NK cells and target cells. In the first pathway, cytoplasmic granule toxins, predominantly a membrane-disrupting protein known(More)
The immune system provides an attractive option for use in cancer therapy. Our increasing understanding of the molecular events important in the generation of an effective immune response presents us with the opportunity to manipulate key genes to boost the immune response against cancer. Genetic modification is being employed to enhance a range of immune(More)
T cells have the capacity to eradicate diseased cells, but tumours present considerable challenges that render T cells ineffectual. Cancer cells often make themselves almost 'invisible' to the immune system, and they sculpt a microenvironment that suppresses T cell activity, survival and migration. Genetic engineering of T cells can be used therapeutically(More)
We have investigated the primary immunity generated in vivo by MHC class I-deficient and -competent tumor cell lines that expressed the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early inducible-1 (Rae-1) beta. Rae-1beta expression on class I-deficient RMA-S lymphoma cells enhanced primary NK cell-mediated tumor rejection in vivo, whereas RMA-Rae-1beta tumor cells were(More)
TNF apoptosis-inducing ligand is attracting considerable interest as a potential extrinsic tumor suppressor mechanism, although previous reports have conveyed somewhat contrasting views regarding the likely importance of this pathway. In this study, we provide the first evaluation of spontaneous tumor formation over the life span of TRAIL-deficient mice.(More)
T-cell-based immunotherapies provide a promising means of cancer treatment although durable antitumor responses are infrequent. A potential reason for these shortcomings may lie in the observed lack of trafficking of specific T cells to tumor. Our increasing knowledge of the process of trafficking involving adhesion molecules and chemokines affords us the(More)
Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising approach for the treatment of cancer; however, autoimmunity against normal tissue can be a serious complication of this therapy. We hypothesized that T-cell cultures responding maximally only when engaging two antigens would be more specific for tumor cells, and less active against normal cells, as long as the tumor(More)