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PURPOSE To study the potentially adverse health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in young children, a short five-question survey was developed to identify routine exposure to ETS in a large epidemiological study. METHODS The survey is administered to parents of a healthy cohort of children starting at age 3 months. To validate the(More)
CONTEXT Cod liver oil supplements in infancy have been associated with a decreased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in a retrospective study. OBJECTIVE To examine whether intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are associated with the development of islet autoimmunity (IA) in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A longitudinal, observational(More)
IMPORTANCE The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing worldwide, with the most rapid increase among children younger than 5 years of age. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between perinatal and infant exposures, especially early infant diet, and the development of T1DM. DESIGN The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY)(More)
BACKGROUND Cow's milk intake has been inconsistently associated with islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. Genetic and environmental factors may modify the effect of cow's milk on IA and T1D risk. METHODS The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) follows children at increased T1D risk of IA (presence of autoantibodies(More)
AIM We investigated whether omega-3 fatty acid intake and erythrocyte membrane omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with conversion to type 1 diabetes in children with islet autoimmunity (IA). METHODS The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young is following children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of persistent IA,(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Dietary sugar intake may increase insulin production, stress the beta cells and increase the risk for islet autoimmunity (IA) and subsequent type 1 diabetes. METHODS Since 1993, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of IA (autoantibodies(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESES We previously reported that lower n-3 fatty acid intake and levels in erythrocyte membranes were associated with increased risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) but not progression to type 1 diabetes in children at increased risk for diabetes. We hypothesise that specific n-3 fatty acids and genetic markers contribute synergistically to this(More)
In this observational study, we compared erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in infants consuming formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) with those consuming other types of milks. In 110 infants who were participants in a cohort study of otherwise healthy children at risk for developing type 1 diabetes, erythrocytes(More)
BACKGROUND While adult populations have been well described in terms of nutritional status, such as the concentration of nutrient biomarkers, little work has been done in healthy paediatric populations. OBJECTIVE The primary objective of this analysis was to explore the determinants of plasma micronutrients in a group of healthy infants and children. (More)
BACKGROUND Infant dietary exposures have been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. IgG4 antibody responses to food antigens are associated with food intolerances but have not been explored prospectively in the period preceding T1D. METHODS Using a case-cohort design, IgG4 antibodies to ß-lactoglobulin, gluten, and ovalbumin were measured in plasma(More)