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Behavioural evidence suggests that cephalopod molluscs may have a form of primary consciousness. First, the linkage of brain to behaviour seen in lateralization, sleep and through a developmental context is similar to that of mammals and birds. Second, cephalopods, especially octopuses, are heavily dependent on learning in response to both visual and(More)
Oculomotor tracking of one's moving hand is considerably more accurate than tracking of an external target undergoing comparable motion. To identify the factors contributing to this enhancement of tracking accuracy, the influence of visual, proprioceptive, and efferent cues on tracking performance was assessed. Related observations were made on the(More)
Oculomotor pursuit can be elicited by moving visual, tactile, proprioceptive, and occasionally auditory targets presented singly. Both the accuracy and amount of pursuit are enhanced if the position of the target is specified by cues from several sensory modalities. When the motion of the target is topologically related to movements of the subject's arm,(More)
Continuous ocular and manual tracking of the same visual target moving horizontally in sinusoids at 0.75 Hz was measured by lag, RMS Error, and Gain. The best measures of accuracy of tracking, error and lag, were remarkably similar in the two systems and were affected similarly by presence of a background and changes in predictability of target movement.(More)
Rationale The original call for participation announced the following outline: <<The seven known species of the pygmy squid genus among the smallest living cephalopods. Recent studies revealed that at least some of these miniature squids are extremely short-lived, while they are " maximalists " in terms of their reproductive output. The small adult size and(More)
Studies to evaluate the prevalence, sources, and health consequences of lead absorption were conducted among children living near a primary lead smelter. Lead levels in air, soil, and dust were highest at the smelter and decreased with distance. Ninety-nine percent of one- to nine-year-old children living within 1.6 kilometers had blood lead levels greater(More)
During their 3rd week of life, 73 Octopus bimaculoides were observed to test whether discrete behaviors could be grouped reliably to reflect dimensions of temperament. Frequencies of behaviors during Week 3 were subjected to principal-components analysis (PCA), resulting in 4 components (active engagement, arousal/readiness, aggression, and(More)
A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group(More)
Studying play behavior in octopuses is an important step toward understanding the phylogenetic origins and function of play as well as the cognitive abilities of invertebrates. Fourteen Octopus vulgaris (7 subadults and 7 adults) were presented 2 Lego objects and 2 different food items on 7 consecutive days under 2 different levels of food deprivation. Nine(More)
A record audit of the office immunization records of 13 private-practice Idaho physicians included 813 2-year-old children. Thirty-six percent had completed all the Public Health Service recommended immunizations for a 2-year-old child. Forty-four percent of the "active" patients (those seen by the physician within the previous 12 months) were complete as(More)