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While risk assessment models attempt to predict human risk to toxicant exposure, in many cases these models cannot account for the wide variety of human responses. This review addresses several primary sources of heterogeneity that may affect individual responses to drug or toxicant exposure. Consideration was given to genetic polymorphisms, age-related(More)
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents continue to be a threat at home and abroad during the war against terrorism. Human exposure to nerve agents such as VX results in a cascade of toxic effects relative to the exposure level including ocular miosis, excessive secretions, convulsions, seizures, and death. The primary mechanism behind these overt symptoms is(More)
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