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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are critical players in development and disease, regulating such diverse processes as dorsoventral patterning, palate formation, and ossification. These ligands are classically considered to signal via BMP receptor-specific Smad proteins 1, 5, and 8. To determine the spatiotemporal pattern of Smad1/5/8 activity and thus(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate magnetic resonance angiography sequences during the contrast steady-state (SS-MRA) using inversion recovery (IR) with fast low-angle shot (IR-FLASH) or steady-state free precession (IR-SSFP) read-outs, following the injection of a blood-pool contrast agent, and compare them to first-pass MR angiography (FP-MRA) in adults with(More)
The purpose of this study is to use magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to evaluate the relationship between different patterns of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) fusion and aortic arch morphologies, as characterized by the carotid-subclavian artery (CSA) index-of the aortic diameter at the left subclavian artery to the distance between the left carotid artery(More)
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