Jennifer A Erwin

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To equalize X-chromosome dosages between the sexes, the female mammal inactivates one of her two X chromosomes. X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is initiated by expression of Xist, a 17-kb noncoding RNA (ncRNA) that accumulates on the X in cis. Because interacting factors have not been isolated, the mechanism by which Xist induces silencing remains unknown.(More)
The presence of two active X chromosomes (XaXa) is a hallmark of the ground state of pluripotency specific to murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human ESCs (hESCs) invariably exhibit signs of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) and are considered developmentally more advanced than their murine counterparts. We describe the establishment of XaXa hESCs derived(More)
Mobile elements are DNA sequences that can change their position (retrotranspose) within the genome. Although its biological function is largely unappreciated, DNA derived from mobile elements comprises nearly half of the human genome. It has long been thought that neuronal genomes are invariable; however, recent studies have demonstrated that mobile(More)
CTCF is a master regulator that plays important roles in genome architecture and gene expression. How CTCF is recruited in a locus-specific manner is not fully understood. Evidence from epigenetic processes, such as X chromosome inactivation (XCI), indicates that CTCF associates functionally with RNA. Using genome-wide approaches to investigate the(More)
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is initiated by expression of the noncoding Xist RNA in the female embryo. Tsix, the antisense noncoding partner of Xist, serves as its regulator during both imprinted and random XCI. Here, we show that Tsix in part acts through a 34mer repeat, DXPas34. DXPas34 contains bidirectional promoter activity, producing overlapping(More)
We have devised a general strategy for producing female mice from 39,X0 embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from male cell lines carrying a targeted mutation of interest. We show that the Y chromosome is lost in 2% of subclones from 40,XY ES cell lines, making the identification of targeted 39,X0 subclones a routine procedure. After gene targeting, male and(More)
The healthy human brain is a mosaic of varied genomes. Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition is known to create mosaicism by inserting L1 sequences into new locations of somatic cell genomes. Using a machine learning-based, single-cell sequencing approach, we discovered that somatic L1-associated variants (SLAVs) are composed of two(More)
Paremecium tetraurelia contains high concentrations of six ethanolamine sphingolipids in the cell surface membrane surrounding somatic cilia. Three have phosphoryl groups and the other three have phosphonyl groups, and each contains either dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine, or phytosphingosine. In the present study, free, phosphorylated, and three major(More)
Single-cell sequencing methods have emerged as powerful tools for identification of heterogeneous cell types within defined brain regions. Application of single-cell techniques to study the transcriptome of activated neurons can offer insight into molecular dynamics associated with differential neuronal responses to a given experience. Through evaluation of(More)