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Phylogenetic relationships among frogs of the genus Rana from western North America are investigated using 2013 aligned bases of mitochondrial DNA sequence from the genes encoding ND1 (subunit one of NADH dehydrogenase), tRNA(Ile), tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Met), ND2, tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), and COI (subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase),(More)
DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic mark known to have wide-ranging effects on gene regulation in a variety of animal taxa. Comparative genomic analyses can help elucidate the function of DNA methylation by identifying conserved features of methylated genes and other genomic regions. In this study, we used computational approaches to distinguish(More)
Drosophila polymorpha is a widespread species that exhibits abdominal pigmentation variation throughout its range. To gain insight into this variation we combined phenotypic and genotypic data to test a series of nested hypotheses. First, we tested the null hypothesis that geographic variation in pigmentation is due to neutral factors. We used nested clade(More)
Methylation of cytosine is one of the main epigenetic mechanisms involved in controlling gene expression. Here we show that the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome possesses homologues to all the DNA methyltransferases found in vertebrates, and that 0.69% (+/-0.25%) of all cytosines are methylated. Identified methylation sites are predominantly(More)
Both genetic and environmental factors underlie phenotypic variation. While research at the interface of evolutionary and developmental biology has made excellent advances in understanding the contribution of genes to morphology, less well understood is the manner in which environmental cues are incorporated during development to influence the phenotype.(More)
Aphids exhibit unique attributes, such as polyphenisms and specialized cells to house endosymbionts, that make them an interesting system for studies at the interface of ecology, evolution and development. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of the developmental genes in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and compare our results to other(More)
Sex combs reduced (Scr), a Hox gene located in the Antennapedia complex of Drosophila melanogaster, is required for the proper development of the labial and first thoracic segments. The Tribolium castaneum genetically defined locus Cephalothorax (Cx) is a candidate Scr ortholog based on the location of Cx in the beetle Homeotic complex and mutant effects on(More)
BACKGROUND A molecular process based genotype-to-phenotype map will ultimately enable us to predict how genetic variation among individuals results in phenotypic alterations. Building such a map is, however, far from straightforward. It requires understanding how molecular variation re-shapes developmental and metabolic networks, and how the functional(More)
Genome-wide patterns of diversity and selection are critical measures for understanding how evolution has shaped the genome. Yet, these population genomic estimates are available for only a limited number of model organisms. Here we focus on the population genomics of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). The pea aphid is an emerging model system that(More)