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BACKGROUND Although the association between PM2.5 mass and mortality has been extensively studied, few national-level analyses have estimated mortality effects of PM2.5 chemical constituents. Epidemiologic studies have reported that estimated effects of PM2.5 on mortality vary spatially and seasonally. We hypothesized that associations between PM2.5(More)
The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously(More)
Sources of particulate matter (PM) air pollution are generally inferred from PM chemical constituent concentrations using source apportionment models. Concentrations of PM constituents are often censored below minimum detection limits (MDL) and most source apportionment models cannot handle these censored data. Frequently, censored data are first(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Determining which sources of PM2.5 are most toxic can help guide targeted reduction of PM2.5. However, conducting multicity epidemiologic studies of sources is difficult because source-specific PM2.5 is not(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years a number of studies have examined the short-term association between coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) and mortality and morbidity outcomes. These studies, however, have produced inconsistent conclusions. OBJECTIVES We estimated both the national- and regional-level associations between PM(10-2.5) and emergency(More)
Epidemiological studies have been critical for estimating associations between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution and adverse health outcomes. Because total PM mass is a temporally and spatially varying mixture of constituents with different physical and chemical properties, recent epidemiological studies have focused on PM(More)
Estimating health effects associated with source-specific exposure is important for better understanding how pollution impacts health and for developing policies to better protect public health. Although epidemiologic studies of sources can be informative, these studies are challenging to conduct because source-specific exposures (e.g., particulate matter(More)
The purpose of this study was to describe clinician-observed, naturally occurring temper tantrums in preschoolers ages 2 to 5.5 diagnosed with severe behavior problems. Participants were 24 mother-child dyads enrolled in an intensive outpatient treatment program. Clinicians timed and observed 330 temper tantrums, rated their intensity, and recorded(More)
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