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There is remarkable conservation in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate immune responses of plants, insects and mammals. We developed an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cell system based on the induction of early-defence gene transcription by flagellin, a highly conserved component of bacterial flagella that functions as a(More)
The transient gene expression system using Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts has proven an important and versatile tool for conducting cell-based experiments using molecular, cellular, biochemical, genetic, genomic and proteomic approaches to analyze the functions of diverse signaling pathways and cellular machineries. A well-established protocol that has(More)
BACKGROUND The green-fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has recently been used as a universal reporter in a broad range of heterologous living cells and organisms. Although successful in some plant transient expression assays based on strong promoters or high copy number viral vectors, further improvement of expression efficiency(More)
Sugars not only fuel cellular carbon and energy metabolism but also play pivotal roles as signaling molecules. The experimental amenability of yeast as a unicellular model system has enabled the discovery of multiple sugar sensors and signaling pathways. In plants, different sugar signals are generated by photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in source and(More)
Glucose modulates many vital processes in photosynthetic plants. Analyses of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive2 (gin2) mutants define the physiological functions of a specific hexokinase (HXK1) in the plant glucose-signaling network. HXK1 coordinates intrinsic signals with extrinsic light intensity. HXK1 mutants lacking catalytic activity still support(More)
Despite the recognition of H(2)O(2) as a central signaling molecule in stress and wounding responses, pathogen defense, and regulation of cell cycle and cell death, little is known about how the H(2)O(2) signal is perceived and transduced in plant cells. We report here that H(2)O(2) is a potent activator of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in(More)
Photosynthetic plants are the principal solar energy converter sustaining life on Earth. Despite its fundamental importance, little is known about how plants sense and adapt to darkness in the daily light-dark cycle, or how they adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses that compromise photosynthesis and respiration and deplete energy supplies. Current(More)
volume 31 NumBeR 8 AuGuST 2013 nature biotechnology 8. Jiang, W., Bikard, D., Cox, D., Zhang, F. & Marraffini, L.A. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 233–239 (2013). 9. Hwang, W.Y. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 31, 227–229 (2013). 10. Chang, N. et al. Cell Res. 23, 465–472 (2013). 11. Wang, H. et al. Cell 153, 910–918 (2013). 12. Shan, Q. et al. Mol. Plant 6, 1365–1368(More)
The mechanisms by which higher plants recognize and respond to sugars are largely unknown. Here, we present evidence that the first enzyme in the hexose assimilation pathway, hexokinase (HXK), acts as a sensor for plant sugar responses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing antisense hexokinase (AtHXK) genes are sugar hyposensitive, whereas plants(More)