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The prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is an insect cerebral peptide that stimulates the prothoracic glands to produce ecdysteroids that initiate moulting and metamorphosis. During the last larval instar of holometabolous insects, a reduction in the hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) levels is a necessary step in initiating larval-pupal transformation. Recently(More)
Aquatic birnavirus induces mitochondria-mediated cell death, but whether connects to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is still unknown. In this present, we characterized that IPNV infection triggers ER stress-mediated cell death via PKR/eIF2α phosphorylation signaling for regulating the Bcl-2 family protein expression in fish cells. The IPNV infection can(More)
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