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The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested(More)
In this paper, we generalize a previously-described model of the error-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reaction to conditions of arbitrarily variable amplification efficiency and initial population size. Generalisation of the model to these conditions improves the correspondence to observed and expected behaviours of PCR, and restricts the extent to(More)
Many technologies have been developed to help explain the function of genes discovered by systematic genome sequencing. At present, transcriptome and proteome studies dominate large-scale functional analysis strategies. Yet the metabolome, because it is 'downstream', should show greater effects of genetic or physiological changes and thus should be much(More)
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a rapid, noninvasive technique with considerable potential for application in the food and related industries. We show here that this technique can be used directly on the surface of food to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints." Spoilage in meat is the result of decomposition and the formation(More)
Genetic programming, in conjunction with advanced analytical instruments, is a novel tool for the investigation of complex biological systems at the whole-tissue level. In this study, samples from tomato fruit grown hydroponically under both high-and low-salt conditions were analysed using Ž. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR , with the aim of(More)
Direct injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) without prior analyte separation was investigated for the analysis of whole cell suspensions of bacteria. Thirty-six strains of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria, consisting of six Bacillus species and one Brevibacillus species, were studied
Pyrolysis mass spectrometry was used to produce complex biochemical fingerprints of Eubacterium exiguum, E. infirmum, E. tardum and E. timidum. To examine the relationship between these organisms the spectra were clustered by canonical variates analysis, and four clusters, one for each species, were observed. In an earlier study we trained artificial neural(More)
We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses,(More)