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Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) is a rapidly growing problem. The multitude and variety of both the attacks and the defense approaches is overwhelming. This paper presents two taxonomies for classifying attacks and defenses, and thus provides researchers with a better understanding of the problem and the current solution space. The attack(More)
We identify a number of principles with respect to prediction that, we argue, underpin adult language comprehension: (a) comprehension consists in realizing a mapping between the unfolding sentence and the event representation corresponding to the real-world event being described; (b) the realization of this mapping manifests as the ability to predict both(More)
Many network attacks forge the source address in their IP packets to block traceback. Recently, research activity has focused on packet-tracing mechanisms to counter this deception. Unfortunately, these mechanisms are either too expensive or ineffective against distributed attacks where traffic comes from multiple directions, and the volume in each(More)
Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks significantly degrade service quality experienced by legitimate users, by introducing large delays, excessive losses, and service interruptions. The main goal of DoS defenses is to neutralize this effect, and to quickly and fully restore quality of various services to levels acceptable by the users. To objectively evaluate a(More)
Defenses against flooding distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) commonly respond to the attack by dropping the excess traffic, thus reducing the overload at the victim. The major challenge is the differentiation of the legitimate from the attack traffic, so that the dropping policies can be selectively applied. We propose D-WARD, a source-end DDoS defense(More)
Modern software pervasively uses structurally complex data such as linked data structures. The standard approach to generating test suites for such software, manual generation of the inputs in the suite, is tedious and error-prone. This dissertation proposes a new approach for specifying properties of structurally complex test inputs; presents a technique(More)