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Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) is a rapidly growing problem. The multitude and variety of both the attacks and the defense approaches is overwhelming. This paper presents two taxonomies for classifying attacks and defenses, and thus provides researchers with a better understanding of the problem and the current solution space. The attack(More)
We identify a number of principles with respect to prediction that, we argue, underpin adult language comprehension: (a) comprehension consists in realizing a mapping between the unfolding sentence and the event representation corresponding to the real-world event being described; (b) the realization of this mapping manifests as the ability to predict both(More)
Many network attacks forge the source address in their IP packets to block traceback. Recently, research activity has focused on packet-tracing mechanisms to counter this deception. Unfortunately, these mechanisms are either too expensive or ineffective against distributed attacks where traffic comes from multiple directions, and the volume in each(More)
Defenses against flooding distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) commonly respond to the attack by dropping the excess traffic, thus reducing the overload at the victim. The major challenge is the differentiation of the legitimate from the attack traffic, so that the dropping policies can be selectively applied. We propose D-WARD, a source-end DDoS defense(More)
Denial-of-service (DoS) attacks significantly degrade service quality experienced by legitimate users, by introducing large delays, excessive losses, and service interruptions. The main goal of DoS defenses is to neutralize this effect, and to quickly and fully restore quality of various services to levels acceptable by the users. To objectively evaluate a(More)
We propose a design of a client reputation system that can be used to reduce unwanted traffic in the Internet. Many reputation systems proposed in the trust literature are provider-oriented, but because of different use and adversary models, their techniques are not directly applicable to client reputation systems. We survey the challenges of building(More)
Internet worm spread is a phenomenon involving millions of hosts, who interact in complex and diverse environment. Scanning speed of each infected host depends on its resources and the defenses at work in its network. Aggressive worms further interact with the underlying Internet topology .. the dynamics of the spread is constrained by the limited bandwidth(More)