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Pyridine nucleotides, ascorbate and glutathione are major redox metabolites in plant cells, with specific roles in cellular redox homeostasis and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, the regulation of these metabolite pools during exponential growth and their precise functions in the cell cycle remain to be characterized. The present analysis of the(More)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent renal carcinogen in male rats, although its mode of carcinogenicity is not known. The metabolism and covalent binding of OTA to DNA were investigated in vitro with cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases, prostaglandin H-synthase, and horseradish peroxidase. Incubation of OTA with rat or human liver microsomes fortified(More)
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the treatment with a-lipoic acid (LA), a naturally occurring compound possessing antioxidant activity, on liver oxidant stress in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes by examining potential mechanistic points that influence changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase(More)
The dietary mutagens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are activated to genotoxins by rat and human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A1- and 1A2-mediated N-oxidation. Immunoquantitation of 51 human liver samples revealed a wide range in P450 1A2 expression (10-250 pmol/mg of(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a period(More)
The complex antioxidant network of plant and animal cells has the thiol tripeptide GSH at its centre to buffer ROS (reactive oxygen species) and facilitate cellular redox signalling which controls growth, development and defence. GSH is found in nearly every compartment of the cell, including the nucleus. Transport between the different intracellular(More)
The heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ) induces intestinal tumours and hepatocellular carcinomas in rats, but no tumourigenic effects have been identified in the kidney. The tissue-specific mutagenicity of IQ was studied at the lacI locus in the liver, colon and kidney of Big Blue transgenic rats. At the highest(More)
Metabolic pathways of the mutagen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) remain incompletely characterized in humans. In this study, the metabolism of MeIQx was investigated in primary human hepatocytes. Six metabolites were characterized by UV and mass spectroscopy. Novel metabolites were additionally characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy.(More)
PURPOSE The combined hyperglycemia lowering and antioxidant actions of α-lipoic acid (LA) contribute to its usefulness in preventing renal injury and other diabetic complications. The precise mechanisms by which LA alters diabetic oxidative renal injury are not known. We hypothesized that LA through its hypoglycemic effect lowers O-GlcNAcylation which(More)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in some cereal and grain products. It is a potent renal carcinogen in male rats, although its mode of carcinogenic action is not known. Oxidative stress may play a role in OTA-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. In this study, we measured several chemical and biological markers that are associated with oxidative(More)