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BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of structural and functional related endopeptidases. They play a crucial role in tumor invasion and building of metastatic formations because of their ability to degrade extracellular matrix proteins. Under physiological conditions their activity is precisely regulated in order to prevent tissue(More)
BACKGROUND Gene expression studies related to cancer diagnosis and treatment are important. In order to conduct such experiment accurately, absolutely reliable housekeeping genes are essential to normalize cancer related gene expression. The most important characteristics of such genes are their presence in all cells and their expression levels remain(More)
Trophoblast cell (CTB) invasion into the maternal endometrium plays a crucial role during human embryo implantation and placentation. As for all invasive cell types, the ability of CTB to infiltrate the uterine wall is facilitated by the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is regulated by tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). There is evidence(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of protein components of the extracellular matrix and thus play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Their expression is related to the progression of gynecological cancers (e.g. endometrial, cervical or ovarian carcinoma). In this study we investigated the expression(More)
RAF proteins are well known oncoproteins. The B-RAF has been shown to be activated by mutations in a multitude of human cancers. Alterations of C-RAF expression are discussed to play a role in lung cancer. Only for A-RAF no link to tumorigenesis has been published so far. Malignant gliomas are the most prevalent primary brain tumors of adults. They are(More)
NDRG1 is a member of the N-myc downregulated gene (NDRG) family. Its induction occurs via diverse physiological and pathological conditions (hypoxia, cellular differentiation, heavy metal, N-myc, neoplasia) which modulate NDRG1 transcription, mRNA stability and translation. Hypoxia, among other factors, induces NDRG1 expression and plays an important role(More)
Glioblastomas are characterized by an aggressive local growth pattern, a marked degree of invasiveness and poor prognosis. Tumor invasiveness is facilitated by the increased activity of proteolytic enzymes which are involved in destruction of the extracellular matrix of the surrounding healthy brain tissue. Elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastomas (GBM), the most frequent malignant brain tumors in adults, are characterized by an aggressive local growth pattern and highly invasive tumor cells. This invasion is facilitated by expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases. They mediate the degradation of protein components of the(More)
Hypoxia is a crucial factor in tumour aggressiveness and its treatment resistance, particularly in human brain cancer. Tumour resistance against radiation- and chemo- therapy is facilitated by oxygenation reduction at tumour areas. HIF-1α regulated genes are mostly responsible for this type of resistance. Among these genes, carbonic anhydrase isoform 9(More)
AIM To study the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) 9 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS We studied CA9 protein, CA9 mRNA and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein levels in Hep3B cells exposed in different parallel approaches. In one of these approaches, HCC cells were exposed to extreme in vitro hypoxia (24 h 0.1%(More)