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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
BACKGROUND Sperm DNA integrity is of paramount importance in the prognosis of fertility. We applied image cytometry to a toluidine blue (TB) test we recently proposed. METHODS Sperm samples from 33 men were assayed for standard sperm parameters and classified as normal or abnormal. Sperm smears were subjected to the TB test, DNA denaturation testing with(More)
Controversy exists over levels of DNA integrity in the sperm of fertile and infertile men. In addition, the effect of leukocytospermia on sperm DNA in these 2 groups is unclear. We decided to address these questions by collecting semen samples from men known or presumed to be fertile and men from infertile couples. Samples were analyzed and assessed for(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously reported that p53 mutated radioresistant lymphoma cell lines undergo mitotic catastrophe after irradiation, resulting in metaphase arrest and the generation of endopolyploid cells. A proportion of these endopolyploid cells then undergo a process of de-polyploidisation, stages of which are partially reminiscent of meiotic(More)
'Neosis' describes the process whereby p53 function-deficient tumour cells undergo self-renewal after genotoxic damage apparently via senescing ETCs (endopolyploid tumour cells). We previously reported that autophagic digestion and extrusion of DNA occurs in ETC and subsequently revealed that self-renewal transcription factors are also activated under these(More)
mAbs are becoming increasingly utilized in the treatment of lymphoid disorders. Although Fc-FcgammaR interactions are thought to account for much of their therapeutic effect, this does not explain why certain mAb specificities are more potent than others. An additional effector mechanism underlying the action of some mAbs is the direct induction of cell(More)
Metastatic cancer is rarely cured by current DNA damaging treatments, apparently due to the development of resistance. However, recent data indicates that tumour cells can elicit the opposing processes of senescence and stemness in response to these treatments, the biological significance and molecular regulation of which is currently poorly understood.(More)
The epiphyses of femurs from 7.5-15 day chicken embryos were studied by electron microscopy. Several forms of aberrant cell cycles were present: (1) in the perichondrium, polyploid metaphases, segmentating large (giant) cells, and mitotic catastrophe (midway between mitosis and apoptosis) were observed; (2) in the resting zone, premature chromosome(More)
Genes expressed both in normal testis and in malignancies (Cancer/ Testis associated genes – CTA) have become the most extensively studied antigen group in the field of tumour immunology. Despite this, many fundamentally important questions remain unanswered: what is the connection between germ-cell specific genes and tumours? Is the expression of these(More)
Escape from mitotic catastrophe and generation of endopolyploid tumour cells (ETCs) represents a potential survival strategy of tumour cells in response to genotoxic treatments. ETCs that resume the mitotic cell cycle have reduced ploidy and are often resistant to these treatments. In search for a mechanism for genome reduction, we previously observed that(More)