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The mechanisms controlling axon guidance are of fundamental importance in understanding brain development. Growing corticospinal and somatosensory axons cross the midline in the medulla to reach their targets and thus form the basis of contralateral motor control and sensory input. The motor and sensory projections appeared uncrossed in patients with(More)
In this multicenter study, 2D spatial mapping of J-coupled resonances at 3T and 4T was performed using short-TE (15 ms) proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI). Water-suppressed (WS) data were acquired in 8.5 min with 1-cm(3) spatial resolution from a supraventricular axial slice. Optimized outer volume suppression (OVS) enabled mapping in close(More)
BACKGROUND Whether brain imaging can identify patients who are most likely to benefit from therapies for acute ischemic stroke and whether endovascular thrombectomy improves clinical outcomes in such patients remains unclear. METHODS In this study, we randomly assigned patients within 8 hours after the onset of large-vessel, anterior-circulation strokes(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated occurrences of hypoxic, hypercapnic, and transient blood pressure elevation episodes that may damage or alter neural structures. Underdeveloped structures or pre-existing damage in brain areas may also contribute to the genesis of the syndrome. Brain morphology in 21 patients with OSA and in 21(More)
We hypothesized that neural processes mediating deficient sensory and autonomic regulatory mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) would be revealed by responses to inspiratory loading in brain regions regulating sensory and motor control. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals and physiologic changes were assessed during baseline and(More)
The goals of this study were to first determine whether the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of major white matter pathways associate with schizophrenia, and secondly to characterize the extent to which differences in these metrics might reflect a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. Differences in FA and MD were identified using a(More)
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients show deficient respiratory and cardiac responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia, despite apparently intact arousal responses to hypercapnia and adequate respiratory motor mechanisms, thus providing a model to evaluate functioning of particular brain mechanisms underlying breathing. We used functional(More)
We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of fiber tract integrity, in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a tract-based atlasing approach on six-direction diffusion tensor imaging data, we examined FA within the cingulum, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, optic radiations, superior(More)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by diminished upper airway muscle phasic and tonic activation during sleep, but enhanced activity during waking. We evaluated neural mechanisms underlying these patterns with functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures during baseline and expiratory loading conditions in nine medication-free OSA and 16(More)
The location and possible lateralization of structures mediating autonomic processing are not well-described in the human. Functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures were used to demonstrate signal changes in multiple brain sites during blood pressure challenges. Magnetic resonance signals in brain tissue were visualized with a 1.5 Tesla scanner in 11(More)