Jeffry D. Schroeter

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In order to obtain more insight into the tissue distribution, accumulation, and elimination of cerium oxide nanoparticles after inhalation exposure, blood and tissue kinetics were investigated during and after a 28-day inhalation study in rats with micro- and nanocerium oxide particles (nominal primary particle size: < 5000, 40, and 5-10 nm). Powder(More)
The most widely used particle dosimetry models are those proposed by the National Council on Radiation Protection, International Commission for Radiological Protection, and the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (the RIVM model). Those models have inherent problems that may be regarded as serious drawbacks: for example, they(More)
Concerns for potential vulnerability to manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity during fetal and neonatal development have been raised due to increased needs for Mn for normal growth, different sources of exposure to Mn, and pharmacokinetic differences between the young and adults. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Mn during human gestation and(More)
Acrolein is a highly soluble and reactive aldehyde and is a potent upper-respiratory-tract irritant. Acrolein-induced nasal lesions in rodents include olfactory epithelial atrophy and inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. Nasal uptake of inhaled acrolein in rats is moderate to high, and depends on(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient with the capacity for toxicity from excessive exposure. Accumulation of Mn in the striatum, globus pallidus, and other midbrain regions is associated with neurotoxicity following high-dose Mn inhalation. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for ingested and inhaled Mn in rats and nonhuman primates were(More)
Certain inhaled chemicals, such as reactive, water-soluble gases, are readily absorbed by the nasal mucosa upon inhalation and may cause damage to the nasal epithelium. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of nasal lesions in laboratory animals exposed to formaldehyde with gas uptake rates predicted by computational models reveal that lesions usually(More)
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of inertial particle deposition have not compared well with data from nasal replicas due to effects of surface texture and the resolution of tomographic images. To study effects of geometric differences between CFD models and nasal replicas, nasal CFD models with different levels of surface smoothness were(More)
Many studies suggest limited effectiveness of spray devices for nasal drug delivery due primarily to high deposition and clearance at the front of the nose. Here, nasal spray behavior was studied using experimental measurements and a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages constructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy(More)
An improved understanding of the relationship between inspired concentration of the potent nasal toxicant acrolein and delivered dose is needed to support quantitative risk assessments. The uptake efficiency (UE) of 0.6, 1.8, or 3.6 ppm acrolein was measured in the isolated upper respiratory tract (URT) of anesthetized naive rats under constant-velocity(More)
Inhalation toxicology investigations are often performed with laboratory animals to address the potential health effects of inhaled air pollutants on human beings. In Part II of this risk assessment study we have considered the deposition of inhaled particulate matter in the laboratory rat as the surrogate of choice. Calculations were performed in an(More)