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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. However, the mechanism of MMP activation remains unclear. We report that MMP activation involves S-nitrosylation. During cerebral ischemia in vivo, MMP-9 colocalized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase. S-Nitrosylation activated MMP-9 in vitro and(More)
Carcinoma cells express a novel integrin involved in cell adhesion to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen or von Willebrand factor, whereas melanoma and endothelial cells express a vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3) that promotes cell attachment to all of these matrix components. The integrin responsible for this adhesive phenotype of carcinoma cells is(More)
We have purified a novel member of the integrin gene family from placenta that serves as a vitronectin receptor. This integrin is composed of the alpha v subunit and a beta subunit that we designate beta 5. Purification was accomplished by immunodepleting a placental extract of integrin alpha v beta 3, allowing us to purify alpha v beta 5 from the remaining(More)
Metastasis is the primary cause of death in human breast cancer. Metastasis to bone, lungs, liver, and brain involves dissemination of breast cancer cells via the bloodstream and requires adhesion within the vasculature. Blood cell adhesion within the vasculature depends on integrins, a family of transmembrane adhesion receptors, and is regulated by(More)
Glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa is the major fibrinogen receptor on platelets and participates in platelet aggregation at the site of a wound. Integrin alpha v beta 3, which contains an identical beta-subunit, is expressed on endothelial cells and also serves as a fibrinogen receptor. Here, we demonstrate by several criteria that purified GPIIb-IIIa and integrin(More)
We evaluated cellular mechanisms involved in the activation pathway of matrix prometalloproteinase-2 (pro-MMP-2), an enzyme implicated in the malignant progression of many tumor types. Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) cleaves the N-terminal prodomain of pro-MMP-2 thus generating the activation intermediate that then matures into the fully(More)
Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin are both essential to cell invasion. Maturation of integrin pro-alpha(v)chain (pro-alpha(v)) involves its cleavage by proprotein convertases (PC) to form the disulfide-bonded 125-kDa heavy and 25-kDa light alpha chains. Our report presents evidence of an alternative pathway of(More)
There is a growing belief that the metabolic program of breast tumor cells could be a therapeutic target. Yet, without detailed information on central carbon metabolism in breast tumors it is impossible to know which metabolic pathways to target, and how their inhibition might influence different stages of breast tumor progression. Here we perform the first(More)