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Four-dimensional (4D) radiotherapy is the explicit inclusion of the temporal changes in anatomy during the imaging, planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. Temporal anatomic changes can occur for many reasons, though the focus of the current investigation is respiration motion for lung tumors. The aim of this study was to develop 4D radiotherapy(More)
This study develops and tests a method to compute dosimetric images for an amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat-panel detector so that an accurate quantitative comparison between measured and computed portal images may be made. An EGS4-based Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm is developed to efficiently tally the energy deposition through the use of a virtual detector(More)
Conventional photon radiation therapy dose-calculation algorithms typically compute and report the absorbed dose to water (D(w)). Monte Carlo (MC) dose-calculation algorithms, however, generally compute and report the absorbed dose to the material (D(m)). As MC-calculation algorithms are being introduced into routine clinical usage, the question as to(More)
Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory(More)
This work (i) proposes a probabilistic treatment planning framework, termed coverage optimized planning (COP), based on dose coverage histogram (DCH) criteria; (ii) describes a concrete proof-of-concept implementation of COP within the PINNACLE treatment planning system; and (iii) for a set of 28 prostate anatomies, compares COP plans generated with this(More)
The Monte Carlo (MC) method has been shown through many research studies to calculate accurate dose distributions for clinical radiotherapy, particularly in heterogeneous patient tissues where the effects of electron transport cannot be accurately handled with conventional, deterministic dose algorithms. Despite its proven accuracy and the potential for(More)
Respiratory motion during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) causes two types of problems. First, the clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin needed to account for respiratory motion means that the lung and heart dose is higher than would occur in the absence of such motion. Second, because respiratory motion is not(More)
The dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) can be used for four-dimensional (4D), or tumor tracking radiotherapy. However, the leaf velocity and acceleration limitations become a crucial factor as the MLC leaves need to respond in near real time to the incoming respiration signal. The aims of this paper are to measure maximum leaf velocity, acceleration, and(More)
Four-dimensional (4D) radiotherapy delivery to dynamically moving tumors requires a real-time signal of the tumor position as a function of time so that the radiation beam can continuously track the tumor during the respiration cycle. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based marker-tracking system(More)
Four-dimensional (4D) radiotherapy is the explicit inclusion of the temporal changes in anatomy during the imaging, planning and delivery of radiotherapy. Temporal anatomic changes can occur for many reasons, though the focus of the current investigation was respiration motion for lung tumours. The aims of the current research were first to develop a 4D(More)