Jeffrey V. Butler

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Using a large sample of retail investors as well as experimental data we find that risk and ambiguity aversion are positively correlated. We show the common link is decision style: intuitive thinkers tolerate more risk and ambiguity than effortful reasoners. One interpretation is that intuitive thinking confers an advantage in risky or ambiguous situations.(More)
We investigate the relationship between individual trust and individual economic performance. We find that individual income is hump-shaped in a measure of intensity of trust beliefs. Heterogeneity of trust beliefs in the population, coupled with the tendency of individuals to extrapolate beliefs about others from their own levels of trustworthiness, could(More)
A group of marathon runners (290 males, 54 females, mean age 39.7 +/- 0.7 years) who participated in the Los Angeles Marathon recorded their food and fluid intake throughout a 3-day period, with the time of day denoted for each entry. Investigators coded each subject's food intake according to six time periods: 5:00-8:59 a.m., 9:00-10:59 a.m., 11:00(More)
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the use of supplements in a large group of endurance runners (no. = 347) who had participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content and supplement usage. The runners' supplementation patterns with respect to demographics, dietary quality, training(More)
Three-day food records from a large group of marathon runners (291 men, 56 women) were analyzed and compared to various standards of dietary quality. Intake by the runners exceeded two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for all nutrients except vitamin D and zinc in female runners. Energy and nutrient intake levels in the marathon runners were(More)
When we take a cab we may feel cheated if the driver takes an unnecessarily long route despite the lack of a contract or promise to take the shortest possible path. Is the behavior of the driver affected by beliefs about our cheating notions, and where do his beliefs come from? For that matter, where do our cheating notions come from, and how do they color(More)
In the next decades, the world’s population in urban areas will increase by 2-3 billion people (1). Within this population context, there is increasing evidence that both socially disadvantaged inhabitants and people with a minority status are at high risk for mental disorders and mental health burden (2-4). Differential analyses of individual-level and(More)
Hamster, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit alveolar macrophage extracts were tested for elastase activity using elastin suspended in agar and two synthetic substrates, p-nitrophenyl N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl L-alaninate (NBA) and succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanine-p-nitroanilide (SLAPN). Activity against NBA was easily detectable, but there was no activity(More)