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UNLABELLED The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply(More)
UNLABELLED Chronic human exposure to formaldehyde is significantly increased by indoor sources. However, information is lacking on why these exposures appear to persist in older homes with aging sources. We use data from the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air study to evaluate 179 residences, most of which were older than 5 years. We assess(More)
Higher-efficiency HVAC filters generally have a higher pressure drop and are widely assumed to increase energy consumption in smaller air conditioning systems. To explore the effects of filters in real buildings, we monitored 17 residential and light-commercial forced air cooling systems in Austin, TX. Measurements were made once per month for one year at(More)
UNLABELLED Stand-alone air cleaners may be efficient for rapid removal of indoor fine particles and have potential use for shelter-in-place (SIP) strategies following acts of bioterrorism. A screening model was employed to ascertain the potential significance of size-resolved particle (0.1-2 microm) removal using portable high efficiency particle arresting(More)
Much of human exposure to ambient ozone and ozone reaction byproducts occurs inside buildings. However, there are currently no experimental data on the ability of ozone to penetrate through building envelopes and into residences. This paper presents a method to determine the penetration factor for ozone in buildings, and applies it in an unoccupied test(More)
OBJECTIVE To make recommendations on how to report disease activity in clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) endorsed by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS The project followed the EULAR standardised operating procedures, which use a three-step approach: (1) expert-based definition(More)
The dynamics of indoor environmental conditions, human occupancy, and operational characteristics of buildings influence human comfort and indoor environmental quality, including the survival and progression of microbial communities. A suite of continuous, long-term environmental and operational parameters were measured in ten patient rooms and two nurse(More)
Emerging treatment options in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are giving new hope to patients with this chronic and potentially disabling disease. Clinical development of new treatments requires that rigorous and well controlled trials be conducted to demonstrate safety and efficacy. A number of classification systems have been developed in recent years as a(More)
This study assessed differences in the indoor air quality and occupancy levels in seventeen bars due to a city-wide smoking ban that took effect on September 1, 2005 in Austin, Texas, USA. We measured the following in each venue before and after the smoking ban: mean number of occupants, mean number of lit cigarettes, temperature, relative humidity, room(More)
Vacuuming is generally considered to be an important activity with respect to the cleanliness of indoor environments but may lead to short-term resuspension of particulate matter and elevated particle mass in indoor air. Because resuspended particles often contain toxicants, such as lead and pesticides, or consist of biological agents that can trigger(More)