Jeffrey S. Hall

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ABSTRACT The complete nucleotide sequence of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) has been determined based on complementary DNA clones derived from the 9,384-nucleotide (nt) RNA of the virus. The genome of WSMV has a 130-nt 5' leader and 149-nt 3'-untranslated region and is polyadenylated at the 3' end. WSMV RNA encodes a single polyprotein of 3,035 amino acid(More)
The nucleic acid of a serologically distinct potyvirus, originally isolated out of sugar cane from Pakistan, was reverse transcribed and the 3' terminal 2000 bp was PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic comparisons of viruses representing each genus of the Potyviridae show that the Pakistani isolate is most closely related to the rymoviruses(More)
 Genome sequences of three Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) strains were compared. The Type and Sidney 81 strains of WSMV from the American Great Plains were closely related, with sequence identities of 97.6% (nucleotide) and 98.7% (amino acid). In contrast, the El Batán 3 strain from central Mexico was divergent, and shared only 79.2–79.3% (nucleotide) and(More)
Cross-protection and vector transmission bottlenecks have been proposed as mechanisms facilitating genetic isolation of sympatric viral lineages. Molecular markers were used to monitor establishment and resolution of mixed infections with genetically defined strains of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). Two closely related WSMV strains from the U.S. (Type(More)
Serosurveys were conducted to obtain flavivirus and West Nile virus (WNV) seroprevalence data from mammals. Sera from 513 small- and medium-sized mammals collected during late summer and fall 2003 from Colorado, Louisiana, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania were screened for flavivirus-specific antibodies. Sera samples containing antibody to flaviviruses were(More)
Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) have exhibited high seroprevalence rates, suggesting that they are commonly exposed to West Nile virus (WNV). Many characteristics of WNV infections in tree squirrels, such as the durations and levels of viremia, remain unknown. To better understand WNV infections in fox squirrels (S. niger), we subcutaneously inoculated(More)
Sera from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected in Iowa during the winter months (1999-2003), 2 years before and after West Nile virus (WNV) was first reported in Iowa (2001), and were analyzed for antibodies to WNV. Samples from 1999 to 2001 were antibody negative by blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) and plaque(More)
Variation within the Type and Sidney 81 strains of wheat streak mosaic virus was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Limiting-dilution subisolates (LDSIs) of each strain were evaluated for polymorphism in the P1, P3, NIa, and CP cistrons. Different SSCP patterns among LDSIs of a strain(More)
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus. We found antibodies to a variety of influenza virus subtypes (H10N7, H4N6, H4N2, H3, and H1) with wide geographic variation in(More)
Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November-December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1)(More)