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Geobacter spp. can acquire energy by coupling intracellular oxidation of organic matter with extracellular electron transfer to an anode (an electrode poised at a metabolically oxidizing potential), forming a biofilm extending many cell lengths away from the anode surface. It has been proposed that long-range electron transport in such biofilms occurs(More)
The effects of global warming, pollution in river effluents, and changing ocean currents can be studied by characterizing variations in phytoplankton populations. We demonstrate the design and fabrication of a Microflow Cytometer for characterization of phytoplankton. Guided by chevron-shaped grooves on the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel, two(More)
Recent developments in microflow cytometry have concentrated on advancing technology in four main areas: (1) focusing the particles to be analyzed in the microfluidic channel, (2) miniaturization of the fluid-handling components, (3) miniaturization of the optics, and (4) integration and applications development. Strategies for focusing particles in a(More)
Analysis of the intrinsic fluorescence profiles of individual marine algae can be used in general classification of organisms based on cell size and fluorescence properties. We describe the design and fabrication of a Microflow Cytometer on a chip for characterization of phytoplankton. The Microflow Cytometer measured distinct side scatter and fluorescence(More)
A microflow cytometer was developed that ensheathed the sample (core) fluid on all sides and interrogated each particle in the sample stream at four different wavelengths. Sheathing was achieved by first sandwiching the core fluid with the sheath fluid laterally via fluid focusing. Chevron-shaped groove features fabricated in the top and bottom of the(More)
A simple design capable of 2-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing is proposed and successfully demonstrated. In the past, most microfluidic sheath flow systems have often only confined the sample solution on the sides, leaving the top and bottom of the sample stream in contact with the floor and ceiling of the channel. While relatively simple to build, these(More)
A simple sheath flow microfluidic device is used to fabricate polymer micro/nanofibers that have precisely controlled shapes and sizes. Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) was used as the model polymer for these experiments. The sheath-flow device uses straight diagonal and chevron-shaped grooves integrated in the top and bottom walls of the flow channel to(More)
The phenomenon of "unmixing" has been demonstrated in microfluidic mixers, but here we manipulate laminar flow streams back to their original positions in order to extend the operational utility of an analytical device where no mixing is desired. Using grooves in the channel wall, we passively focus a sample stream with two sheath streams to center it in a(More)
A microfabricated flow cytometer was used to demonstrate multiplexed detection of bacteria and toxins using fluorescent coded microspheres. Antibody-coated microspheres bound biothreat targets in a sandwich immunoassay format. The microfluidic cytometer focused the microspheres in three dimensions within the laser interrogation region using passive groove(More)
A priori information is used to derive the chemical potential as a function of density and temperature for 2D and 3D lattice systems. The functional form of this equation of state is general in terms of lattice type and dimensionality, though it contains critical temperature and critical density as parameters which depend on lattice type and dimensionality.(More)