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We examined, with event-related fMRI, two hypotheses about the organization of human working memory function in frontal cortex: (1) that a region immediately anterior to the frontal eye fields (FEF) (superior frontal cortex, SFC) is specialized for spatial working memory (Courtney, et al., 1998); and (2) that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a(More)
We used event-related functional MRI to investigate the neural bases of two categories of mental processes believed to contribute to performance of an alphabetization working memory task: memory storage and memory manipulation. Our delayed-response tasks required memory for the identity and position-in-the-display of items in two- or five-letter memory sets(More)
Since its inception, experimental psychology has sought to account for individual differences in human performance. Some neuroimaging research, involving complex behavioral paradigms, has suggested that faster-performing individuals show greater neural activity than slower performers. Other research has suggested that faster-performing individuals show less(More)
Updating refers to (1) discarding items from, (2) repositioning items in, and (3) adding items to a running working memory span. Our behavioral and fMRI experiments varied three factors: trial length, proactive interference (PI), and group integrity. Group integrity reflected whether the grouping of items at the encoding stage was violated at discarding.(More)
Brain imaging and behavioral studies of working memory (WM) converge to suggest that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates a capacity-limited storage buffer and that the dorsolateral PFC mediates memory organization processes that support supracapacity memory storage. Previous research from our laboratory has shown that the extent to which such(More)
BACKGROUND The 2007 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women drew heavily on results from randomized clinical trials; however, representation of women in trials of cardiovascular disease prevention has not been systematically assessed. METHODS AND RESULTS We abstracted 156 randomized clinical trials cited by the(More)
We used event-related fMRI to measure brain activity while younger and older adults performed an item-recognition task in which the memory-set size varied between 1 and 8 letters. Each trial was composed of a 4-second encoding period in which subjects viewed random letter strings, a 12-second retention period and a 2-second retrieval period in which(More)
Few studies have investigated the role of elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA(2)) with stroke risk, and those that have are based on small numbers of strokes. No study has evaluated the effect of hormone therapy use on the association of Lp-PLA(2) and stroke. We assessed the relationship between Lp-PLA(2) and the risk of incident(More)
OBJECTIVEdThe association between platelet activity, diabetes, and glucometabolic control is uncertain. We aim to investigate mean platelet volume (MPV), a marker of platelet size and platelet activity, with the prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and degree of glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdThis is a retrospective analysis of 13,021(More)
Background—Smoking increases platelet aggregability and the degree of platelet inhibition by clopidogrel on ex vivo platelet function tests. Whether smoking status affects the relationship between clopidogrel and clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods and Results—We evaluated the relationship between smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, or(More)