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Functional imaging in humans and anatomical data in monkeys have implicated the insula as a multimodal sensory integrative brain region. The topography of insular connections is organized by its cytoarchitectonic regions. Previous attempts to measure the insula have utilized either indirect or automated methods. This study was designed to develop a reliable(More)
A temporal motor defect in speech preparation and/or planning may contribute to the development of stuttering. This defect may be linked to a dysfunctional cortical-subcortical network at the level of the striatum. To determine whether structural differences exist and whether group differences are associated with stuttering severity or manual laterality,(More)
The counterclockwise brain torque, defined as a larger right prefrontal and left parietal-occipital lobe, is a consistent brain asymmetry. Reduced or reversed lobar asymmetries are markers of atypical cerebral laterality and have been found in adults who stutter. It was hypothesized that atypical brain torque would be more common in children who stutter.(More)
Previous studies have shown that speaking affects auditory and motor cortex responsiveness, which may reflect the influence of motor efference copy. If motor efference copy is involved, it would also likely influence auditory and motor cortical activity when preparing to speak. We tested this hypothesis by using auditory event-related potentials and(More)
The SpeechEasy is an electronic device designed to alleviate stuttering by manipulating auditory feedback via time delays and frequency shifts. Device settings (control, default, custom), ear-placement (left, right), speaking task, and cognitive variables were examined in people who stutter (PWS) (n=14) compared to controls (n=10). Among the PWS there was a(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine prefrontal and occipital asymmetry (brain torque) in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls. A secondary aim was to study age-related changes in gray and white matter volume. BACKGROUND Several studies have found atypical early cortical development in ASD. Atypical brain torque, defined as a greater-than-normal left(More)
Behavioral and EEG studies suggest spatial attention is allocated as a gradient in which processing benefits decrease away from an attended location. Yet the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical processes that contribute to attentional gradients are unclear. We measured EEG while participants (n = 35) performed an auditory spatial attention task that(More)
Motor efference copy conveys movement information to sensory areas before and during vocalization. We hypothesized speech preparation would modulate auditory processing, via motor efference copy, differently in men who stutter (MWS) vs. fluent adults. Participants (n=12/group) had EEG recorded during a cue-target paradigm with two conditions: speech which(More)
Behavioral studies support the concept of an auditory spatial attention gradient by demonstrating that attentional benefits progressively diminish as distance increases from an attended location. Damage to the right inferior parietal cortex can induce a rightward attention bias, which implicates this region in the construction of attention gradients. This(More)
The diversion of attention from a primary goal by irrelevant events is known as attention capture, and is often followed by a directed action. The hypothesis that corticospinal excitability is modulated by attention capture was tested using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Participants watched a video while sounds were intermittently presented. Motor(More)