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In response to numerous pathologic stimuli, the myocardium undergoes a hypertrophic response characterized by increased myocardial cell size and activation of fetal cardiac genes. We show that cardiac hypertrophy is induced by the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, which dephosphorylates the transcription factor NF-AT3, enabling it to translocate to(More)
An emerging concept is that the mammalian myocardium has the potential to regenerate, but that regeneration might be too inefficient to repair the extensive myocardial injury that is typical of human disease. However, the degree to which stem cells or precursor cells contribute to the renewal of adult mammalian cardiomyocytes remains controversial. Here we(More)
BACKGROUND Transgenic and gene-targeted models have focused on the mouse. Fundamental differences between the mouse and human exist in Ca2+ handling during contraction/relaxation and in alterations in Ca2+ flux during heart failure, with the rabbit more accurately reflecting the human system. METHODS AND RESULTS Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) mutations can(More)
Thrombospondin (Thbs) proteins are induced in sites of tissue damage or active remodeling. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is also prominently induced with disease where it regulates protein production and resolution of misfolded proteins. Here we describe a function for Thbs as ER-resident effectors of an adaptive ER stress response. Thbs4(More)
Sudden cardiac death exhibits diurnal variation in both acquired and hereditary forms of heart disease, but the molecular basis of this variation is unknown. A common mechanism that underlies susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias is abnormalities in the duration (for example, short or long QT syndromes and heart failure) or pattern (for example,(More)
To delineate the in vivo cardiac functions requiring normal delta protein kinase C (PKC) activity, we pursued loss-of-function through transgenic expression of a deltaPKC-specific translocation inhibitor protein fragment, deltaV1, in mouse hearts. Initial results using the mouse alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC) promoter resulted in a lethal heart failure(More)
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C), a sarcomeric protein with 11 domains, C0–C10, binds to the myosin rod via its C-terminus, while its N-terminus binds regions of the myosin head and actin. These N-terminal interactions can be attenuated by phosphorylation of serines in the C1–C2 motif linker. Within the sarcomere, cMyBP-C exists in a range of(More)
Calcineurin is a protein phosphatase that is uniquely regulated by sustained increases in intracellular Ca(2+) following signal transduction events. Calcineurin controls cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inducible gene expression following stress and neuroendocrine stimulation. In the adult heart, calcineurin regulates hypertrophic(More)
Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C) is an integral part of the striated muscle sarcomere. As is the case for other sarcomeric genes in human populations, multiple mutations within the gene have been linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Although some MyBP-C lesions are the result of missense mutations, most show truncated polypeptides lacking either(More)