Jeffrey R Gould

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The Splitting Index (SI), a self-report scale based on the writings of Kernberg (e.g., 1976) on self and object representations and the defense mechanism of splitting, was constructed. After development over the course of 6 pilot studies, the SI was validated through 2 further studies. Factor analyses revealed a 24-item scale with three 8-item subscales,(More)
INTRODUCTION Improvements in steadiness with practice have been associated with enhanced performance on a functional task in old adults. PURPOSE The aims of the study were to examine the specificity of the association between steadiness and a functional task and to assess the influence of practicing a functional task on force steadiness of hand muscles.(More)
Presynaptic modulation of Ia afferents converging onto the motor neuron pool of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) was compared during contractions (20% of maximal force) sustained to failure as subjects controlled either the angular position of the wrist while supporting an inertial load (position task) or exerted an equivalent force against a rigid(More)
The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces(More)
The study compared positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) of [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) uptake by skeletal muscles and the amount of muscle activity as indicated by surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings when young and old men performed fatiguing isometric contractions that required either force or position(More)
NEW FINDINGS What is the central question of this study? Does the capacity to modulate afferent input to spinal motor neurons during steady submaximal contractions change with advancing age? What is the main finding and its importance? After practising a co-contraction task involving lower leg muscles, young subjects improved force steadiness by reducing(More)
The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of single motor units during sustained isometric contractions that required either force or position control in left-handed individuals. The target force for the two sustained contractions (24.9 ± 10.5% maximal force) was identical for each biceps brachii motor unit (n = 32) and set at(More)
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the capacity of an expanded set of force steadiness tasks to explain the variance in the time it takes young men and women to complete the grooved pegboard test. In a single experimental session, 30 participants (mean ± SD) (24.2 ± 4.0 yr; 15 women) performed the grooved pegboard test, two tests of hand speed,(More)
The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) current intensity and pulse width applied to the right elbow flexors on the discharge characteristics of motor units in the left biceps brachii. Three NMES current intensities were applied for 5 s with either narrow (0.2 ms) or wide (1 ms) stimulus pulses:(More)
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