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Semantic memory refers to knowledge about people, objects, actions, relations, self, and culture acquired through experience. The neural systems that store and retrieve this information have been studied for many years, but a consensus regarding their identity has not been reached. Using strict inclusion criteria, we analyzed 120 functional neuroimaging(More)
Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions,(More)
Localized, task-induced decreases in cerebral blood flow are a frequent finding in functional brain imaging research but remain poorly understood. One account of these phenomena postulates processes ongoing during conscious, resting states that are interrupted or inhibited by task performance. Psychological evidence suggests that conscious humans are(More)
Task-induced deactivation (TID) refers to a regional decrease in blood flow during an active task relative to a "resting" or "passive" baseline. We tested the hypothesis that TID results from a reallocation of processing resources by parametrically manipulating task difficulty within three factors: target discriminability, stimulus presentation rate, and(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) was used to identify candidate language processing areas in the intact human brain. Language was defined broadly to include both phonological and lexical-semantic functions and to exclude sensory, motor, and general executive functions. The language activation task required phonetic and semantic analysis of(More)
Semantic memory includes all acquired knowledge about the world and is the basis for nearly all human activity, yet its neurobiological foundation is only now becoming clear. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate two striking results: the participation of modality-specific sensory, motor, and emotion systems in language comprehension, and the existence of(More)
We performed functional MRI (FMRI) in 22 consecutive epilepsy patients undergoing intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing and compared language lateralization measures obtained with the two procedures. FMRI used a single-word semantic decision task previously shown to activate lateralized language areas in normal adults. Correlation between the two tests(More)
Language dominance and factors that influence language lateralization were investigated in right-handed, neurologically normal subjects (n = 100) and right-handed epilepsy patients (n = 50) using functional MRI. Increases in blood oxygenation-dependent signal during a semantic language activation task relative to a non-linguistic, auditory discrimination(More)
The pronunciation of irregular words in deep orthographies like English cannot be specified by simple rules. On the other hand, the fact that novel letter strings can be pronounced seems to imply the existence of such rules. These facts motivate dual-route models of word naming, which postulate separate lexical (whole-word) and non-lexical (rule-based)(More)
The organization of tonotopic fields in human auditory cortex was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were presented with stochastically alternating multi-tone sequences in six different frequency bands, centered at 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, and 6400 Hz. Two mirror-symmetric frequency gradients were found extending along an(More)