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Semantic memory refers to knowledge about people, objects, actions, relations, self, and culture acquired through experience. The neural systems that store and retrieve this information have been studied for many years, but a consensus regarding their identity has not been reached. Using strict inclusion criteria, we analyzed 120 functional neuroimaging(More)
Task-induced deactivation (TID) refers to a regional decrease in blood flow during an active task relative to a "resting" or "passive" baseline. We tested the hypothesis that TID results from a reallocation of processing resources by parametrically manipulating task difficulty within three factors: target discriminability, stimulus presentation rate, and(More)
Semantic memory includes all acquired knowledge about the world and is the basis for nearly all human activity, yet its neurobiological foundation is only now becoming clear. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate two striking results: the participation of modality-specific sensory, motor, and emotion systems in language comprehension, and the existence of(More)
In functional neuroimaging, a local decrease in blood flow during an active task, relative to a "resting" baseline, is referred to as task-induced deactivation (TID). TID may occur when resources shift from ongoing, internally generated processing typical of "resting" states to processing required by an exogenous task. We previously found specific brain(More)
Neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence point to a role for the left fusiform gyrus in visual word recognition, but the specific nature of this role remains a topic of debate. The aim of this study was to measure the sensitivity of this region to sublexical orthographic structure. We measured blood oxygenation (BOLD) changes in the brain with(More)
Physiological studies of auditory perception have not yet clearly distinguished sensory from decision processes. In this experiment, human participants identified speech sounds masked by varying levels of noise while blood oxygenation signals in the brain were recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Accuracy and response time were used(More)
The organization of tonotopic fields in human auditory cortex was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were presented with stochastically alternating multi-tone sequences in six different frequency bands, centered at 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, and 6400 Hz. Two mirror-symmetric frequency gradients were found extending along an(More)
Infrequent occurrences of a deviant sound within a sequence of repetitive standard sounds elicit the automatic mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). The main MMN generators are located in the superior temporal cortex, but their number, precise location, and temporal sequence of activation remain unclear. In this study, ERP and functional(More)
Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of word imageability and concreteness remain a topic of central interest in cognitive neuroscience and could provide essential clues for understanding how the brain processes conceptual knowledge. We examined these effects using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants identified(More)
The high degree of intersubject structural variability in the human brain is an obstacle in combining data across subjects in functional neuroimaging experiments. A common method for aligning individual data is normalization into standard 3D stereotaxic space. Since the inherent geometry of the cortex is that of a 2D sheet, higher precision can potentially(More)