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PURPOSE Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is an epileptogenic disorder that arises in childhood and is typically characterized by multiple seizure types, slow spike-and-wave complexes on EEG and cognitive impairment. If medical treatment fails, patients can proceed to one of two palliative surgeries, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or corpus callosotomy (CC).(More)
OBJECTIVE Many common neurosurgical procedures, including anterior temporal lobectomy and endoscopic ventricular puncture, allow neurosurgeons to retrieve portions of the germinal subventricular zone (SVZ). Isolation and maintenance of precursor cells from this zone can be used for hypothesis-driven experiments with a goal of improving our understanding of(More)
OBJECTIVE Deep-seated supratentorial intraparenchymal and intraventricular brain lesions can be difficult to access without causing significant trauma to the overlying cortex and intervening white matter tracts. Traditional brain retractors use multiple blades, which do not exert pressure in an equally distributed fashion. Tubular retractors offer an(More)
OBJECT Endoscopic fenestration has been recognized as an accepted treatment choice for patients with symptomatic arachnoid cysts. The success of this procedure, however, is greatly influenced by individual cyst anatomy and location as well as the endoscopic technique used. This review was conducted to assess what variables influence the treatment success(More)
OBJECTIVE The anterior skull base, in front of the sphenoid sinus, can be approached using a variety of techniques including extended subfrontal, transfacial, and craniofacial approaches. These methods include risks of brain retraction, contusion, cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, and cosmetic deformity. An alternate and more direct approach is the(More)
Presenilins (PS1/PS2) play a critical role in proteolysis of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) to generate beta-amyloid, a peptide important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, several regulatory functions of PS1 have also been reported. Here we demonstrate, in neuroblastoma cells, that PS1 regulates the biogenesis of beta(More)
OBJECT The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) provides a minimally invasive corridor through which the cervicomedullary junction can be decompressed with reduced morbidity rates compared to those with the classic transoral approaches. The limit of the EEA is its inferior extent, and preoperative estimation of its reach is vital for determining its(More)
OBJECTIVE The neovascularization of malignant brain tumors is a poorly understood phenomenon. Radiographic and histological evidence of increased vascularity correlate with clinical grade of gliomas. However, a quantitative noninvasive assay to assess glioma vascularity and associated clinical aggressiveness has not been developed. Circulating endothelial(More)
The authors report a case of a nonachondroplastic dwarf with severe basilar invagination and compression of the cervicomedullary junction (CMJ) due to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Initially excellent reduction of the invagination and decompression of the CMJ was achieved using posterior fixation. However, 1 month postoperatively symptoms recurred and the(More)
Intrasellar and sellar-suprasellar adenomas are generally removed through a transsphenoidal approach. Giant adenomas with significant suprasellar extension often require a craniotomy or combined "above and below" approach. The use of endoscopes has increased the visualization capacity of the transsphenoidal route and made these surgeries less invasive. In(More)