Jeffrey P. Gill

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Many behaviors require reliably generating sequences of motor activity while adapting the activity to incoming sensory information. This process has often been conceptually explained as either fully dependent on sensory input (a chain reflex) or fully independent of sensory input (an idealized central pattern generator, or CPG), although the consensus of(More)
How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding(More)
Behavioral variability is ubiquitous [1-6], yet variability is more than just noise. Indeed, humans exploit their individual motor variability to improve tracing and reaching tasks [7]. What controls motor variability? Increasing the variability of sensory input, or applying force perturbations during a task, increases task variability [8, 9]. Sensory(More)
attenuated Shigella strains have been successfully tested in phase I and II clinical trials and are a leading Shigellosis, an acute diarrhoeal disease, is caused approach for Shigella vaccine development [8]. by Gram-negative bacterium, Shigella, belonging to The prominent pathogenic feature of Shigella is the family Enterobacteriaceae, with four species(More)
Motor systems must be both robust (able to generate behavior reliably despite perturbations) and flexible (able to adapt to a variable environment). How can motor systems be insensitive to external perturbations, while simultaneously retaining sensitivity to sensory input when it is necessary? One possibility is that motor systems respond to changing(More)
Computerised capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of complex mixtures of alkyl porphyrins, as their bis-(trimethylsiloxy)silicon(IV) and bis(tert.-butyldimethylsiloxy)silicon(IV) derivatives, is described. The latter derivative is more suitable for routine GC-MS analysis. This computerised GC-MS approach, when applied to the(More)
Motor systems must adapt to perturbations and changing conditions both within and outside the body. We refer to the ability of a system to maintain performance despite perturbations as “robustness,” and the ability of a system to deploy alternative strategies that improve fitness as “flexibility.” Different classes of pattern-generating circuits yield(More) SCIENCE VOL 336 25 MAY 2012 B iological systems are dynamic. Proteins fold into three-dimensional shapes to serve as catalysts, motors, or regulators. A fertilized egg divides exponentially, and gradients and internal cell states choreograph fetus formation. Neurons become active or are inhibited in shifting spatial and temporal patterns(More)
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