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The Gram-positive, spore-forming pathogen Clostridium difficile is the leading definable cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile infections are difficult to treat because of their frequent recurrence, which can cause life-threatening complications such as pseudomembranous colitis. The spores of C. difficile are responsible for these(More)
Several groups have studied the molecular pathology of inherited breast cancer. By combining several such studies, we show in this study that somatic TP53 abnormalities are more common in breast cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 germ-line mutations than in sporadic breast cancers (odds ratio, 2.8; P = 0.0003). Then, we compared the spectrum of TP53(More)
Mice that are genetically engineered are becoming increasingly more powerful tools for understanding the molecular pathology of many human hereditary diseases, especially those that confer an increased predisposition to cancer. We have generated mouse strains defective in the Xpc gene, which is required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA.(More)
Toxoplasma gondii pathogenesis includes the invasion of host cells by extracellular parasites, replication of intracellular tachyzoites, and differentiation to a latent bradyzoite stage. We present the analysis of seven novel T. gondii insertional mutants that do not undergo normal differentiation to bradyzoites. Microarray quantification of the variation(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer invasion and metastasis involves both epithelial and stromal changes. Our objective was to delineate the pivotal role stroma plays in invasion by comparing transcriptomes among stromal and epithelial cells in normal tissue and invasive breast cancer. METHODS Total RNA was isolated from epithelial and stromal cells that were laser(More)
To protect cells from oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis, organisms possess multiple glycosylases to recognize the damaged bases and to initiate the Base Excision Repair pathway. Three DNA glycosylases have been identified in mammals that are homologous to the Escherichia coli Fpg and Nei proteins, Neil1, Neil2, and Neil3. Neil1 and Neil2 in human and(More)
The DNA glycosylases that remove oxidized DNA bases fall into two general families: the Fpg/Nei family and the Nth superfamily. Based on protein sequence alignments, we identified four putative Fpg/Nei family members, as well as a putative Nth protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All four Fpg/Nei proteins were successfully overexpressed using a(More)
Variants in the CDKN2A tumor suppressor are associated with Familial Melanoma (FM), although for many variants the linkage is weak. The effects of missense variants on protein function and pathogenicity are often unclear. Multiple methods (e.g., laboratory, computational, epidemiological) have been developed to analyze whether a missense variant is(More)
Comparative oncology is a developing research discipline that is being used to assist our understanding of human neoplastic diseases. Companion canines are a preferred animal oncology model due to spontaneous tumor development and similarity to human disease at the pathophysiological level. We use a paired RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)/microarray analysis of a(More)
It is understood that DNA and amino acid substitution rates are highly sequence context-dependent, e.g., C --> T substitutions in vertebrates may occur much more frequently at CpG sites and that cysteine substitution rates may depend on support of the context for participation in a disulfide bond. Furthermore, many applications rely on quantitative models(More)