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Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces(More)
We describe genetic and physical characterization of rearrangements of chromosome III which result in changes of cell type in S. cerevisiae. Two types of rearrangements were obtained as rare events which caused a change at the locus controlling cell type, MAT, associated with a recessive lethal mutation, in one case from MATalpha to MATa-lethal, and in the(More)
A double-stranded DNA cut has been observed in the mating type (MAT) locus of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cultures undergoing homothallic cassette switching. Cutting is observed in exponentially growing cells of genotype HO HML alpha MAT alpha HMR alpha or HO HMLa MATa HMRa, which switch continuously, but not in a/alpha HO/HO diploid strains, in(More)
RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in eukaryotic cells drives transcription of most messenger RNAs. RNAPII core enzyme is composed of 12 polypeptides where Rpb1 is the largest subunit. To further understand the mechanisms of RNAPII transcription, we isolated and characterized novel point mutants of RPB1 that are sensitive to the nucleotide-depleting drug(More)
To study fidelity of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), we analyzed properties of the 6-azauracil-sensitive and TFIIS-dependent E1103G mutant of rbp1 (rpo21), the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of Pol II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using an in vivo retrotransposition-based transcription fidelity assay, we observed that rpb1-E1103G causes a 3-fold increase in(More)
We present a genetic analysis of RAS1 and RAS2 of S. cerevisiae, two genes that are highly homologous to mammalian ras genes. By constructing in vitro ras genes disrupted by selectable genes and introducing these by gene replacement into the respective ras loci, we have determined that neither RAS1 nor RAS2 are by themselves essential genes. However, ras1 -(More)
Mating-type switches of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occur by unidirectional transposition of copies of unexpressed mating-type genetic information, residing at HML and HMR loci, into the expressed MAT locus. The HML and HMR loci remain unchanged. In contrast, in appropriate strains where the silent loci are also allowed to express, for example in mar(More)
Homothallic Saccharomyces yeasts efficiently interconvert between two cell types, the mating types a and alpha. These interconversions have been proposed to occur by genetic rearrangement ("cassette" insertion) at the locus controlling cell type (the mating type locus). The pattern of switching from one cell type to the other during growth of a clone of(More)
A mutation has been identified that suppresses the mating and sporulation defects of all mutations in the mating-type loci of S. cerevisiae. This suppressor, sir1-1, restores mating ability to mat alpha 1 and mat alpha 2 mutants and restores sporulation ability to mat alpha 2 and mata1 mutants. MATa sir1-1 strains exhibit a polar budding pattern and have(More)
Cells have high-fidelity polymerases whose task is to accurately replicate the genome, and low-fidelity polymerases with specialized functions. Although some of these low-fidelity polymerases are exceptional in their ability to replicate damaged DNA and restore the undamaged sequence, they are error prone on undamaged DNA. In fact, these error-prone(More)