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The nature of the "toxic gain of function" that results from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-, Parkinson-, and Alzheimer-related mutations is a matter of debate. As a result no adequate model of any neurodegenerative disease etiology exists. We demonstrate that two synergistic properties, namely, increased protein aggregation propensity (increased(More)
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), altered solubility and aggregation of the mutant protein implicates failure of pathways for detecting and catabolizing misfolded proteins. Our previous studies demonstrated early reduction of proteasome-mediated proteolytic activity in lumbar spinal cord of SOD1(G93A)(More)
Deficiencies in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) are an important cause of autosomal recessive respiratory chain disorders. Patients with isolated COX deficiency are clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in several different assembly factors have been found to cause specific clinical phenotypes. Two of the most common clinical(More)
Abstract The ubiquitin-proteasome system, important for maintaining protein quality control, is compromised in experimental models of familial ALS. The objective of this study was to determine if proteasome function is impaired in sporadic ALS. Proteasomal activities and subunit composition were evaluated in homogenates of spinal cord samples obtained at(More)
Mutations in the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) gene are responsible for a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). The present study demonstrated impaired proteasomal function in the lumbar spinal cord of transgenic mice expressing human SOD-1 with the ALS-causing mutation G93A (SOD-1(G93A)) compared to non-transgenic littermates (LM) and(More)
Drug transit through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for therapeutic responses in malignant glioma. Conventional methods for assessment of BBB penetrance require synthesis of isotopically labeled drug derivatives. Here, we report a new methodology using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) to visualize(More)
Mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are responsible for a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). It has been proposed that oxidative stress and abnormal metal homeostasis contribute to death of motor neurons in this disease. Also, inability of motor neurons to upregulate protective proteins under stress may contribute to their(More)
This article presents a memory efficient algorithm for accurately calculating the isotopic fine structures of molecules. Treating individual isotopic species of a molecule as different mass states, we introduce the concept of transitions between mass states and represent all mass states of the molecule in a hierarchical structure. We show that there exists(More)
Top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry methods can generate gas phase fragments and use these to identify proteins. Top-down methods, in addition, can provide the mass of the protein itself and therefore additional structural information. Despite the conceptual advantage of top-down methods, the market share advantage belongs to bottom-up methods as a(More)
Our previous work postulated a transition concept among different isotopic mass states (i.e., isotopic species) of a molecule, and developed a hierarchical algorithm for accurately calculating their masses and abundances. A theoretical mass spectrum can be generated by convoluting a peak shape function to these discrete mass states. This approach suffers(More)