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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential neurotrophin and regulation of its expression is complex due to multiple 5' untranslated exons which are separately spliced to a common coding exon to form unique mRNA transcripts. Disruption of BDNF gene expression is a key to the development of symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal(More)
The genome of extraembryonic tissue, such as the placenta, is hypomethylated relative to that in somatic tissues. However, the origin and role of this hypomethylation remains unclear. The DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, -3A, and -3B are the primary mediators of the establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation in mammals. In this study, we investigated(More)
Cohort studies have considerable prima facie value for investigating epigenetic processes in psychological disorder; however, the future prospects for such studies will depend on valid peripheral markers. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate association between buccal cell methylation and risk for depression. Epigenotyping was limited to(More)
Plasma concentrations of biologically active vitamin D (1,25-(OH)(2)D) are tightly controlled via feedback regulation of renal 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1; positive) and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1; catabolic) enzymes. In pregnancy, this regulation is uncoupled, and 1,25-(OH)(2)D levels are significantly elevated, suggesting a role in pregnancy progression.(More)
OBJECTIVE Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common ataxia and results from an expanded GAA repeat in the first intron of FXN. This leads to epigenetic modifications and reduced frataxin. We investigated the relationships between genetic, epigenetic, and clinical parameters in a large case-control study of FA. METHODS Clinical data and samples were(More)
Human placentation displays many similarities with tumourigenesis, including rapid cell division, migration and invasion, overlapping gene expression profiles and escape from immune detection. Recent data have identified promoter methylation in the Ras association factor and adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor genes as part of this process.(More)
Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that the epigenome is in constant drift over the life course in response to stochastic and environmental factors. In humans, this has been highlighted by a small number of studies that have demonstrated discordant DNA methylation patterns in adolescent or adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs.(More)
Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by problems with social communication, social interaction, and repetitive or restricted behaviors. ASD are comorbid with other disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Rett syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome. Neither the(More)
Substance abuse has an enormous impact on economic and quality of life measures throughout the world. In more developed countries, overutilization of the most common forms of substances of abuse, alcohol and tobacco, is addressed primarily through prevention of substance use initiation and secondarily through the treatment of those with substance abuse or(More)