Learn More
BACKGROUND The safety and efficacy of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) for fluid resuscitation have not been fully evaluated, and adverse effects of HES on survival and renal function have been reported. METHODS We randomly assigned 7000 patients who had been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 6% HES with a molecular weight(More)
Somatic mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been observed in sporadic tumors as well as cell lines and xenografts derived from such tumors implicating genetic defects of mismatch repair genes in the development of such tumors. However, the proportion of sporadic tumors in which mismatch repair genes have been inactivated has not been determined(More)
CONTEXT Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. However, relatively little information is available about the global epidemiology of such infections. OBJECTIVE To provide an up-to-date, international picture of the extent and patterns of infection in ICUs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The Extended(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the plasma and subcutaneous tissue concentration-time profiles of meropenem administered by intermittent bolus dosing or continuous infusion to critically ill patients with sepsis and without renal dysfunction, and to use population pharmacokinetic modelling and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the cumulative fraction of response(More)
To determine the population incidence and outcome of severe sepsis occurring in adult patients treated in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units (ICUs), and compare with recent retrospective estimates from the USA and UK. Inception cohort study. Twenty-three closed multi-disciplinary ICUs of 21 hospitals (16 tertiary and 5 university affiliated) in(More)
Successful antibiotic therapy in the critically ill requires sufficient drug concentrations at the site of infection that kill or suppress bacterial growth. The relationship between antibiotic exposure and achieving the above effects is referred to as pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). The associated indices therefore provide logical targets for(More)
BACKGROUND Morbidity and mortality for critically ill patients with infections remains a global healthcare problem. We aimed to determine whether β-lactam antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients achieves concentrations associated with maximal activity and whether antibiotic concentrations affect patient outcome. METHODS This was a prospective,(More)
OBJECTIVE The clinical benefits of extended infusion or continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics remain controversial. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether any clinical benefits exist for administration of beta-lactam antibiotics by extended or continuous infusion. DATA SOURCE PubMed (January 1950 to November 2007), EMBASE(More)
BACKGROUND Drug dosing for septic patients with acute renal failure receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is complicated, and failure to correctly dose may result in either drug toxicity or treatment failure and development of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to establish an ideal dataset that needs to be reported when(More)
To determine whether there was a difference between epinephrine and norepinephrine in achieving a mean arterial pressure (MAP) goal in intensive care (ICU) patients. Prospective, double-blind, randomised-controlled trial. Four Australian university-affiliated multidisciplinary ICUs. Patients who required vasopressors for any cause at randomisation. Patients(More)