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We apply MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry for the rapid and high-confidence identification of intact Bacillus spore species. In this method, fragment ion spectra of whole (undigested) protein biomarkers are obtained without the need for biomarker prefractionation, digestion, separation, and cleanup. Laser-induced dissociation (unimolecular decay) of higher(More)
We describe methods for rapid sequencing of the entire human mitochondrial genome (mtgenome), which involve long-range PCR for specific amplification of the mtgenome, pyrosequencing, quantitative mapping of sequence reads to identify sequence variants and heteroplasmy, as well as de novo sequence assembly. These methods have been used to study 40 publicly(More)
An improved data analysis method is described for rapid identification of intact microorganisms from MALDI-TOF-MS data. The method makes no use of mass spectral fingerprints. Instead, a microorganism database is automatically generated that contains biomarker masses derived from ribosomal protein sequences and a model of N-terminal Met loss. We(More)
n the post-9/11 era, the asymmetric threats posed by terrorists or rogue states have created new challenges for the enhanced and efficient defense of the nation. For defense against chemical and biological weapons (cbW), integrated, multitiered, and “netcentric” systems are envisioned that will enable the rapid and cost-effective detection, confirmation,(More)
UNLABELLED Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are positive-sense RNA viruses that can cause severe, highly infectious gastroenteritis. HuNoV outbreaks are frequently associated with recombination between circulating strains. Strain genotyping and phylogenetic analyses show that noroviruses often recombine in a highly conserved region near the junction of the viral(More)
UNLABELLED New human norovirus strains emerge every 2 to 3 years, partly due to mutations in the viral capsid that allow escape from antibody neutralization and herd immunity. To understand how noroviruses evolve antibody resistance, we investigated the structural basis for the escape of murine norovirus (MNV) from antibody neutralization. To identify(More)
Detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy is complicated by sequestration of parasites in the placenta, which reduces peripheral blood microscopic detection. Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) has previously demonstrated sensitive detection of hemozoin from P. falciparum blood cultures and the ability to track parasitemia in a(More)
Rapid diagnosis leading to effective treatment is essential to control escalating infectious diseases such as malaria. Malaria pigment (hemozoin) detection by laser desorption mass spectometry (LDMS) was recently shown to be a sensitive (<10 parasites/muL) technique for detecting Plasmodium falciparum parasites cultured in human blood. To examine the use of(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the decades-long use of Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii (BG) as a simulant for biological warfare (BW) agents, knowledge of its genome composition is limited. Furthermore, the ability to differentiate signatures of deliberate adaptation and selection from natural variation is lacking for most bacterial agents. We characterized a lineage(More)
e review approaches for microorganism identifi cation that exploit the wealth of information in constantly expanding proteome databases. Masses of an organism’s protein biomarkers are experimentally determined and matched against sequence-derived masses of proteins, found together with their source organisms in proteome databases. The source organisms are(More)