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Host-plant resistance is the most economically viable and environmentally responsible method of control for Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of leaf rust in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The identification and utilization of new resistance sources is critical to the continued development of improved cultivars as shifts in pathogen races cause the(More)
Electroporation is commonly used to deliver molecules such as drugs, proteins, and/or DNA into cells, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. In this work a rapid microfluidic assay was developed to determine the critical electric field threshold required for inducing bacterial electroporation. The microfluidic device was designed to have a bilaterally(More)
The nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces strongly influence electrokinetic effects, including electro-osmosis and electrophoresis. In particular, saturation effects due to either dielectric decrement or ion crowding effects are of paramount importance. Dielectric decrement significantly influences(More)
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