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Mice incapable of synthesizing the abundant galactolipids of myelin exhibit disrupted paranodal axo-glial interactions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Using these mutants, we have analyzed the role that axo-glial interactions play in the establishment of axonal protein distribution in the region of the node of Ranvier. Whereas the clustering(More)
The efficiency of remyelination decreases with age, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this decline remain only partially understood. In this study, we show that remyelination is regulated by age-dependent epigenetic control of gene expression. In demyelinated young brains, new myelin synthesis is preceded by downregulation of oligodendrocyte(More)
Mammalian sulfoglycolipids comprise two major members, sulfatide (HSO3-3-galactosylceramide) and seminolipid (HSO3-3-monogalactosylalkylacylglycerol). Sulfatide is a major lipid component of the myelin sheath and serves as the epitope for the well known oligodendrocyte-marker antibody O4. Seminolipid is synthesized in spermatocytes and maintained in the(More)
The progression of progenitors to oligodendrocytes requires proliferative arrest and the activation of a transcriptional program of differentiation. While regulation of cell cycle exit has been extensively characterized, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the initiation of differentiation remain ill-defined. Here, we identify the transcription factor(More)
The vertebrate myelin sheath is greatly enriched in the galactolipids galactocerebroside (GalC) and sulfatide. Mice with a disruption in the gene that encodes the biosynthetic enzyme UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyl transferase (CGT) are incapable of synthesizing these lipids yet form myelin sheaths that exhibit major and minor dense lines with spacing(More)
The evolutionary demand for rapid nerve impulse conduction led to the process of myelination-dependent organization of axons into distinct molecular domains. These domains include the node of Ranvier flanked by highly specialized paranodal domains where myelin loops and axolemma orchestrate the axoglial septate junctions. These junctions are formed by(More)
Protracted social isolation of adult mice induced behavioral, transcriptional and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and impaired adult myelination. Social re-integration was sufficient to normalize behavioral and transcriptional changes. Short periods of isolation affected chromatin and myelin, but did not induce(More)
Saltatory conduction requires high-density accumulation of Na(+) channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Nodal Na(+) channel clustering in the peripheral nervous system is regulated by myelinating Schwann cells through unknown mechanisms. During development, Na(+) channels are first clustered at heminodes that border each myelin segment, and later in the mature(More)
The vertebrate nervous system is characterized by ensheathment of axons with myelin, a multilamellar membrane greatly enriched in the galactolipid galactocerebroside (GalC) and its sulfated derivative sulfatide. We have generated mice lacking the enzyme UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase (CGT), which is required for GalC synthesis. CGT-deficient(More)
Myelinated axons are divided into four distinct regions: the node of Ranvier, paranode, juxtaparanode, and internode, each of which is characterized by a specific set of axonal proteins. Voltage-gated Na+ channels are clustered at high densities at the nodes, whereas shaker-type K+ channels are concentrated at juxtaparanodal regions. These channels are(More)