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Inflammatory processes in chronic rejection remain a serious clinical problem in organ transplantation. Activated cellular infiltrate produces high levels of both superoxide and nitric oxide. These reactive oxygen species interact to form peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant that can modify proteins to form 3-nitrotyrosine. We identified enhanced immunostaining(More)
The model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rodents has been used extensively to investigate the clinical settings of sepsis and septic shock. This model produces a hyperdynamic, hypermetabolic state that can lead to a hypodynamic, hypometabolic stage, and eventual death. Blood cultures are positive for enteric organisms very early after CLP. The(More)
CONTEXT Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). OBJECTIVE To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic(More)
BACKGROUND The transfusion of relatively older stored blood has been associated with an increased risk of multiple organ failure, infection, and death. It remains unknown whether this phenomenon is mitigated by transfusion of leukoreduced red cell units. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of stored blood age on mortality in injured(More)
IMPORTANCE Severely injured patients experiencing hemorrhagic shock often require massive transfusion. Earlier transfusion with higher blood product ratios (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells), defined as damage control resuscitation, has been associated with improved outcomes; however, there have been no large multicenter clinical trials. OBJECTIVE(More)
BACKGROUND In the prehospital environment, the failure of medical providers to recognize latent physiologic derangement in patients with compensated shock may risk undertriage. We hypothesized that the shock index (SI; heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure [SBP]), when used in the prehospital setting, could facilitate the identification of such(More)
BACKGROUND Airway management remains a fundamental component of optimal care of the severely injured patient, with endotracheal intubation representing the definitive strategy for airway control. However, multiple studies document an association between out-of-hospital intubation and increased mortality for severe traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVES To(More)
Advances in systemic immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation have done little to decrease the percentage of allografts that eventually will develop chronic rejection. However, one of the promises of modern molecular biology includes the ability to introduce new genetic information into mammalian hosts. The ability to deliver genes and(More)
BACKGROUND Although the "open abdomen" has likely contributed to improved outcomes in trauma patients, the challenge of subsequent fascial closure has emerged. Since mid 2004, we have incorporated Wittmann Patch staged abdominal closure into our management of the open abdomen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of this device on our(More)
Clinical and experimental studies have shown a decreased mortality for women after nonthermal injury. However, recently published data from this institution showed an increased mortality for female patients younger than 60 years of age with thermal injury. This study extended these observations to evaluate outcomes related to sex in thermal injury in a(More)