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Using plant EST collections, we obtained 1392 potential gene duplicates across 8 plant species: Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Hordeum vulgare, Solanum tuberosum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Medicago truncatula, and Glycine max. We estimated the synonymous and nonsynonymous distances between each gene pair and identified two to three mixtures of(More)
Legumes are simultaneously one of the largest families of crop plants and a cornerstone in the biological nitrogen cycle. We combined molecular and phylogenetic analyses to evaluate genome conservation both within and between the two major clades of crop legumes. Genetic mapping of orthologous genes identifies broad conservation of genome macrostructure,(More)
Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic(More)
Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth-death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant(More)
Considerable information is now available concerning the 7 S seed storage proteins of legumes and the genes that encode them. Our study compares the gene encoding a beta-type subunit of phaseolin (Pvu beta), the 7 S protein of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), with the gene encoding an alpha'-subunit of beta-conglycinin (Gma alpha'), the 7 S protein of(More)
The phylogenetic affinities of the grass family (Poaceae) have long been debated. The chloroplast genomes of at least some grasses have been known to possess three inversions relative to the typical gene arrangement found in most flowering plants. We have surveyed for the presence of these inversions in grasses and other monocots by polymerase chain(More)
Two of the most important observations from whole-genome sequences have been the high rate of gene birth and death and the prevalence of large-scale duplication events, including polyploidy. There is also a growing appreciation that polyploidy is more than the sum of the gene duplications it creates, in part because polyploidy duplicates the members of(More)
Polyploidy is a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. The profound effects of polyploidy on gene expression appear to be caused more by hybridity than by genome doubling. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying genome-wide changes in expression are as yet poorly understood; only methylation has received much study, and its importance varies among(More)
Evolutionary biologists are increasingly comparing gene expression patterns across species. Due to the way in which expression assays are normalized, such studies provide no direct information about expression per gene copy (dosage responses) or per cell and can give a misleading picture of genes that are differentially expressed. We describe an assay for(More)