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Malate and lactate dehydrogenases (MDH and LDH) are homologous, core metabolic enzymes that share a fold and catalytic mechanism yet possess strict specificity for their substrates. In the Apicomplexa, convergent evolution of an unusual LDH from MDH produced a difference in specificity exceeding 12 orders of magnitude. The mechanisms responsible for this(More)
The last decade has seen a growing number of experiments aimed at systematically mapping the effects of mutations in different proteins, and of attempting to correlate their biophysical and biochemical effects with organismal fitness. While insightful, systematic laboratory measurements of fitness effects present challenges and difficulties. Here, we(More)
High-throughput sequencing has enabled many powerful approaches in biological research. Here, we review sequencing approaches to measure frequency changes within engineered mutational libraries subject to selection. These analyses can provide direct estimates of biochemical and fitness effects for all individual mutations across entire genes (and likely(More)
Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB1) signaling is implicated in cell transformation, motility, and invasion in a variety of cell types, and EGFR is the target of several anticancer drugs. However, the kinetics of EGFR signaling and the individual contributions of site-specific phosphorylation events remain largely unknown. A(More)
Mouse macrophage NO-synthase (mNOS) was expressed in a unique yeast-based system by using a three-step procedure which allows yeast growth and NOS expression to be uncoupled. Despite cytotoxic effects related to mNOS expression, levels of catalytically active enzyme up to 0.5 mg of protein per 5 L of culture was obtained after purification. Its(More)
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