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The CDPK-SnRK superfamily consists of seven types of serine-threonine protein kinases: calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPKs), CDPK-related kinases (CRKs), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinases (PPCKs), PEP carboxylase kinase-related kinases (PEPRKs), calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases(More)
To identify genes of potential importance to cold, salt, and drought tolerance, global expression profiling was performed on Arabidopsis plants subjected to stress treatments of 4 degrees C, 100 mM NaCl, or 200 mM mannitol, respectively. RNA samples were collected separately from leaves and roots after 3- and 27-h stress treatments. Profiling was conducted(More)
Plants harbor four families of kinases that have been implicated in Ca(2+) signaling (CDPKs, CRKs, CCaMKs, and SnRK3s). Although each family appears to respond to Ca(2+) via different mechanisms, they all utilize Ca(2+) sensors that bind Ca(2+) through multiple EF-hands. The CDPK (Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase) family is represented by the most genes,(More)
Calcium can function as a second messenger through stimulation of calcium-dependent protein kinases. A protein kinase that requires calcium but not calmodulin or phospholipids for activity has been purified from soybean. The kinase itself binds calcium with high affinity. A complementary DNA clone for this kinase has been identified; it encodes a protein(More)
Numerous stimuli can alter the Ca2+concentration in the cytoplasm, a factor common to many physiological responses in plant and animal cells. Calcium-binding proteins decode information contained in the temporal and spatial patterns of these Ca2+ signals and bring about changes in metabolism and gene expression. In addition to calmodulin, a calcium-binding(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana has eight genes encoding members of the type 1(B) heavy metal-transporting subfamily of the P-type ATPases. Three of these transporters, HMA2, HMA3, and HMA4, are closely related to each other and are most similar in sequence to the divalent heavy metal cation transporters of prokaryotes. To determine the function of these transporters(More)
The plasma membrane in plant cells is energized with an electrical potential and proton gradient generated through the action of H+ pumps belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 11 plasma membrane H+ pumps. Auto-inhibited H+-ATPase isoform 10 (AHA10) is expressed primarily in developing seeds. Here we show that four(More)
Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome encodes 14 Ca(2+) pumps, 10 of which belong to a family of(More)
Cells must respond to an array of environmental and developmental cues. The signaling networks that have evolved to generate appropriate cellular responses are varied and are normally composed of elements that include a sequence of receptors, nonprotein messengers, enzymes and transcription factors. Receptors are normally highly specific for the(More)
The spatial and temporal regulation of calcium concentration in plant cells depends on the coordinate activities of channels and active transporters located on different organelles and membranes. Several Ca2+ pumps have been identified and characterized by functional expression of plant genes in a yeast mutant (K616). This expression system has opened the(More)